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39 Cards in this Set

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dissolution
process of dissolving

longer dissolution time = more delayed onset of action
enteral
drugs enter via digestive tract

drug entrance is oral, sublingual, or rectal

one of three major routes of delivery
epidural
drugs are injected into space overlying the dura mater

parenteral method of delivery
intra-arterial (IA)
drugs are injected into arterial circulation

uncommon - used when drug must reach body tissues directly (anti-cancer drugs)

parenteral method of delivery
intradermal
drugs are injected into dermis (middle layer) of skin

used for allergic reaction tests (TB test)

parenteral method of delivery
intramuscular (IM)
drugs are injected into layers of muscle beneath the skin

quick onset of action due to blood flow (greater than superficial skin layers)

parenteral method of delivery

PROS & CONS: same as SUBQ
intraperitoneal (IP)
RARELY USED IN HUMANS

drugs are injected into abdominal cavity

used when fast absorption necessary

parenteral method of delivery
intrathecal (IT)
drugs are injected into spinal subarachnoid space

used for spinal anesthetics

parenteral method of delivery
intravenous
drugs are injected into venous circulation

parenteral method of delivery

PROS: takes effect quickly - bypasses GI tract & liver

CONS: cannot be easily reversed - risk of clots, air, or microbes
oral
drugs are swallowed, chewed, or allowed to slowly dissolve in the mouth

enteral method of delivery
parenteral
drugs enter body by way other than digestive tract - usually by injection

one of three major routes of delivery
rectal
drugs are administered by way of rectum

entereal method of delivery
solubility
drug's ability to dissolve or mix
subcutaneous (SC or SUBQ)
drugs are injected into hypodermis (deepest layer)of skin

parenteral method of delivery

PROS: final drug concentration more predictable - drugs confined to specific location

CONS: pain - swelling - tissue damage - introduction of microbes
sublingual
drugs are placed under the tongue

drugs are absorbed very quickly

avoids first pass effect

enteral method of delivery
topical
drugs are placed directly onto skin and mucous membranes

locations of delivery include nasal & respiratory passages, ears, eyes, and vagina

one of three major routes of delivery
transdermal
drugs are absorbed across layers of skin for purpose of entering the bloodstream

topical method of delivery
viscosity
thickness of a liquid

higher liquid drug viscosity = increased difficulty in passing through body membranes
What are the three phases of the drug delivery process?
1. drug administration = how drugs enter body
(enteral - parenteral - topical)

2. pharmacokinetic phase = how drugs move throughout body
(absorption - distribution - metabolism - excretion)

3. pharmacodynamic phase = how drugs produce change on target
(efficacy - potency)
A drug administered by the enteral route is one given by any route other than the digestive tract.

True or False
FALSE

The first major route is the digestive tract, or the enteral route.
p25
Drugs are introduced into the body during the pharmacodynamic phase.

True or False
FALSE

In the third phase, drugs must produce a change or an effect at a specific target. This is called the pharmacodynamic phase.
p26
Sublingual and rectal administration are two examples in which drugs bypass destructive enzymes of the liver.

True or False
FALSE

Blood leaving the large intestine also does not travel directly to the liver; therefore, enzymes in the liver are LESS active in breaking down drugs administered by this route.
p28
Drugs applied to the nasal membranes, eyes, ears, or reproductive openings are considered to be topical medications.

True or False
TRUE

...it is not necessary to strictly associate the term topical with the skin because topical drugs may also be applied to the nasal membranes, eyes, ears, and reproductive openings.
p33
Why might rectal drugs be administered to a client?
a. the client is unconscious
b. the client is experiencing nausea or vomiting
c. the client is an infant who cannot swallow pills
d. all of the above are correct choices
d. all of the above are correct choices
Which of the following drug delivery methods is NOT a parenteral method of drug delivery AND avoids the first pass effect in the liver?
a. oral
b. intrathecal
c. intramuscular
d. sublingual
d. sublingual
Which of the following drug delivery methods would most likely produce the fastest onset of action?
a. intravenous
b. intramuscular
c. sublingual
d. rectal
a. intravenous
Which of the following statements is true regarding topical drug applications?
a. For a local effect, it is necessary to keep drugs from penetrating the skin barrier.
b. Liquids and liquid mixtures are the most effective physical compositions for topical drug therapy.
c. In some cases it is desirable for topical drugs to enter the systemic circulation.
d. All of the above choices are correct.
d. All of the above choices are correct.
Some oral medications may be taken with 1_____ and 2_____ to reduce nausea, but you should always ask the 3_____ or 4_____ which medication may be taken this way.
1 food
2 water
3 practitioner
4 pharmacist
One example of a popular 1_____ medication is nitroglycerin. Nitroglycerin is 2_____ very quickly across 3_____ mucosal membranes and produces its effect within several minutes.
1 sublingual
2 absorbed
3 oral
What is the weight in kilograms of a client who weighs 265 lbs?
a. 583 kg
b. 5830 kg
c. 12 kg
d. 120.5 kg
d. 120.5 kg
How many milligrams are in a vial labeled 200 mcg?
a. 20 mg
b. 2 mg
c. 0.2 mg
d. 0.002 mg
c. 0.2 mg
A physician has ordered morphine gr 1/4 IM. It is available as morphine sulfate 10 mg/1 ml. How many ml's will the nurse administer for this dosage?
a. 1.5 ml
b. 2 ml
c. 0.5 ml
d. 15 ml
a. 1.5 ml
A 13 month old child is taking Amoxicillin 250 mg. It is available as Amoxicillin 250 mg/5 ml. How many tsp. will the nurse administer?
a. 1/2 tsp
b. 1 tsp
c. 1 1/2 tsp
d. 2 tsp
b. 1 tsp
How many ml's of cefixime (Suprax) are needed to administer a 200 mg dose? It is available as cefixime 100 mg/5 ml.
a. 15 ml
b. 20 ml
c. 1 ml
d. 10 ml
d. 10 ml
What are the major advantages and disadvantages to administering a medication IV?
PRO: IV meds go directly into the bloodstream - no absorption needed.

CON: Once put into the bloodstream, it can't be reversed.
What assessments must the nurse make prior to administering a medication orally?
Make sure the client has active bowel sounds.

Be sure the client is able to swallow adequately.
What would be the advantages or disadvantages to the subcutaneous method of drug administration?
PRO: It's an effective way to deliver parenteral meds safely to the client.

CONS: Tissue damage is possible.
1____ and 2_____ are two physical properties of a liquid drug that influence its movement throught the body.
1 solubility
2 viscosity
Which of the following drug delivery methods might be used when fast delivery to the cerebral spinal fluid is necessary?
a. intraperitoneal
b. intrathecal
c. epidural
d. transmucosal
b. intrathecal