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158 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Name four nutrients essential for photosynthesis, where they can be found in the ocean, and which is the most abundant
DEEP waters, phospherous (limited), nitrate, nitrogate, potassium, nitrogate NOT limited
what color are long wavelengths, what color are short wavelengths, and which does light pass through more readily in water?
long are red, short are blue/violet, light passes through water more readily if shorter
At 1 m below the surface of the ocean, how much intensity of light is remaining?
At 10 m below the surface of the ocean, how much intensity of light is remaining?
At 100 m below the surface of the ocean, how much intensity of light is remaining?
About how deep in the ocean can coral reefs generally grow?
150 feet
As you get deeper into the ocean, do the wavelengths get shorter or longer?
Why can red algae grow in such deep waters?
It can absorb short wavelengths
What is upwelling, why is it important?
waters mix: currents/winds come down, deep cool water, enriched in nutrients, mixes upward to replace warm surface water; area of high productivity
Where does most photosynthesis take place?
phytoplankton: micro organisms
What are coccoliths and Foraminifera (zooplankton)made of?
What are dinoflagellates and diatoms made of, and what item is it found in?
SiO2, opalline silica, glass
Where are diatoms found, and why?
closer to the poles, more temperature tolerant
Name the lifestyles of the following marine biota:
bottom dwellers
What is the efficiency of moving energy from phytoplankton to carnivore?
For every kg of tuna, how many kg of primary producers are needed?
What is an eutrophic system?
Waters rich in nutrients, promote plant life, esp. algae (through upwelling, land, etc)
What is an oligotrophic system, what occurs here?
waters lacking nutrients; characteristic of the Reef Habitat where recycling of nutrients among biotic consituents maximizes efficiency of nutrient usage
How much nutrients do biotic compenents require?
about 5% input, much is recycled by relationship between plants/animals
what is taxonomy?
how animals and plants are grouped (highest level is kingdom)
What class are corals in?
Class Anthozoa
What class are jellyfish in?
Class Scyphozoa
Name 6 characteristics of PHYLUM COELENTERATA
1. multicellular (tissue layers)
2. development of COELOM (internal body cavity) with mouth
3. Tentaculate
4. Radial Symmetry
5. Simple digestive, nervous, and reproductive systems
6. Exoskeletons (made of CaCO3)
What are blastula?
inflated cells
What is the most diagnostic feature of CNIDARIA?
stinging cells (nematocysts, cnidoblasts)
Name the 3 main classes of SUBPHYLUM CNIDARIA:
1. hydrozoa
2. scyphozoa
3. anthozoa
What is a mesentery, why is it significant, and what class is it found in?
an internal fold in the gastral cavity (stomach), as diamater of stomach increases, so does surface area, absorption efficiency, CLASS ANTHOZOA
What is a polyp?
basic unit of coral, individual adult stage
What is medusa (also know as..)?
a polyp with tentacles, basic unit of skeleton, adult stage of jellyfish
What is a septum?
supporting infolds (like in your nose)
Name 5 characteristics of CLASS HYDROZOA "firecorals" and give a time period
1. highly toxic stinging cells (nematocysts)
2. simple cylindrical internal structure
3. growth form characterized by high energy settings (lower energy can form more solid structures, can't grow upward as quickly)
4. segregation into defensive, reproductive, and feeding polyps (polyp in true coral: each is identical and contains all organs needed for reproduction, defense, feeding)
-gastrozooids: digestion
-dactylozooids: defense
-gonozooids: reproduction
5. NOT true corals; are hydrozoas
*late Cambrian to recent
Give 4 characteristics of CLASS SCYPHOZOA: jellyfish
1. soft
2. have tentacles
3. stinging cells, not important in reef
4. 4 fold symmetry
How are polyps interconnected?
a simple nervous system
What do hermatypic corals possess, and what do they provide for?
dinoflagellate symbionts (zooxanthellae) provide for nutrient recycling with tissue of coral polyps: responsible for recycling, digesting byproducts (nitrogen, phosphorous), resynthesizing through photosynthesis
what is the white coloration on the tip of a coral?
new growth
how many folds do soft corals have?
8, with fringed hair-like structures
what kind of coral are sea fans and sea whips?
soft corals
what is meiosis?
1. division of sexual cells reducing the number of chromosomes from diploid into haploid and the development of gametes (sperm and egg)
2. produce half the number of chromosomes (gametes)
3. involves sexual reproduction
**allows for maintenance of genetic diversity
What are the 2 modes of reproduction in corals?
meiosis and mitosis
Is meiosis efficient in corals? Why or why not?
NO: must create a lot of tissue, corals don't grow very much once they undergo sexual reproduction (once a year), is costly for energy (lots of eggs/sperm produced)
How are sperm and egg clusters emitted, and when? What is unique about this process?
triggered by warming of the sea, during early spring and by lunar cycle; synchronize process such that probabilities of reproduction are higher (full moon, lower tides)
Where does most reproduction activity take place?
externally; some do it inside the stomach
What is mitosis? What is a disadvantage? Advantage?
1. division of cells resulting in full complement of chromosomes (diploid)
2. asexual replication
3. disadvantage: no genetic diveristy (identical polyps) or mobility (limited to pieces broken off and moved)
4. advantage: very efficient, and in biomass
What is important about the planulae stage?
MOBILITY: coral larvae develop as a swimming juvenile that allows for distribution of corals over long distances for as long as 6 months; provides for MOBILITY and COLONIZATION, go long distances, colonize in new areas
What is the adult stage of corals called?
What is the adult stage of jellyfish called?
Which part of the ocean do corals generally live?
1. shallow water (closer to the sun)
2. on the margin between the ocean and land on shallow continental shelves (well mixed normal salinity; 35 parts per thousand)
3.transition between deep/shallow water (about 150 feet)
What kind of temperature do corals prefer, and why?
Restrictive: presence of symbionts is limiting factor, do not develop below 18 degrees, prefer 28-38 degrees C
At about what latitude are corals found?
20 or 30 degrees
What are the limiting ecological factors? (4)
1. underwater: limited by surface
2. light/depth: intensity of photosynthetic activity, efficiency of system, skeletal growth rate increases as near surface
3. salinity: will bloat and burst if too much fresh water, dehydrate if too much salt
4. nutrients supply (small, but necessary): grow in low level of nutrients, but recycle efficienty so require little nutrients
At about what depth do corals grow well?
150 feet
At about what degrees is the continental shelf?
Give 3 characteristics of the mid-atlantic ridge
1. area of active volcanic eruption (hot)
2. where earth pulls apart
3. magnetic field reverses
Phylum Echinodermata “Spiny Skin” (starfish, sea urchin) (4)
1. slimy skinned
2. 5 fold symmetry
3. Sexual reproduction
4. Sivs/plates made of CaCo3, Sucks in water to supply hydraulic system that allows it to move tube feet
5. Irregular sea urchin: mouth on bottom
name the 5 subgroups of Phylum Echinodermata “Spiny Skin” (see notes for details)
1. crinoids
2. brittle star
3. sea cucumber
4. sea urchin
5. starfish
What is the source of food for grazers?
algae and organic matter in the sediment
Phylum Porifera: The Sponges (4 characteristics) how is it both good and bad for the reef?)
1. simple internal structure, or complex, defined by interconnectiveness of holes
2. associated with symbionts, can strengthen skeleton with fragments of skeleton material
3. Fire Sponge: made of silica (makes glass)
4. Has series of incurrent pores which can deviate into small structures designed as digestive/absorption structure, joined with larger excurrent pores which move toward excurrent pores (completely filtered all of nutrient particles out of water, important in building structure of reef)
- Can be good framework builders to strengthen reef during early development, or can live by incrusting something and then emitting acid which dissolves old skeleton of reef, take out bits of pieces of organic nutrients and damage parts of reef
- Intermixed with framework of destructive components of coral
Phylum Mollusca: name 6 things they possess. when did they evolve? what are the three classes?
o gills/lungs (some are land)
o advanced digestive and feeding system
o foot (for locomotion and burrowing)
o light sensors (eyes) incorporated in tissue, dots on surface, extend around mantle, detect predator because of shadow
o circulation system (including heart)
o teeth
evolved 450 MA
o Class Gastropoda- Snails, mostly grazers, not destructive to reef, some carnivorous are one of few animals that feed on the crown-of-thorns, can chew hole through clam shell, pierce inside into tissue, inject digestive juices, sucks material out, destructive if carnivorous, some are Vermetid (wormlike)
o Class Bivalvia- Clams, Tridacna: the giant clam, coloration full of light sensors
o Class Cephalopoda- Squids, Octopus, Nautilus, have heds/feet, eyes, tentacles, advanced, can be herbivorous or carnivorous
what is a lithophago: Rock Eater, how long is it, and why is it good/bad for the reef?
1. A type of boring clam that feeds on organic material trapped within the skeletal structure of the reef
2. 6-8 cm
3. Most clams (phylum mollusca) are passive filter feeders of phyto-and zooplankton
4. Secrete acid, dissolves coral, move in and bore through skeleton; can weaken foundation of reef
- Can be abundant
Christmas Tree Worm: 3 characteristics, 2 constructive elements, 3 destructive elements
1. passive inhabitant
2. lives on surface of coral; filter feeder lives in tubes built within reef skeleton
3. not actively eating/destroying coral
1. - Colenterates: build the framework, foundation and strengthen by encrusting. Fans and whips are bafflers and lead to passive buildup of reefal structure. Hydrozoans (firecoral) builds both framework and encrusts (strengthens) framework
- Porifera: sponges can temporarily strengthen the reef by encrusting the surface, but many sponges actually bore into the reef skeleton leading to a breakdown and weakening of the structure
- Echinoderms: starfish (bad), Urchins both graze on coral and on algae (bad and good) but are simply passive, crinoids (passive)
- Annelids: worms can be borers and weaken skeletal framework of reef
- Mollusks: clams and snails (passive grazers and filter feeders)
Are corals deep in the ocean with or without symbionts?
Where are shelf reefs, and what are the 3 kinds?
adjacent to continent; fringing, patch, barrier
(next to shore, seawater circulates to bring in nutrients, have right saltiness, shallow enough, most susceptible to destruction by humans
Patch reefs
a little farther out, form circular mounds, distributed within lagoon landward of the barrier reef
Barrier reefs
long linear trend, barrier between deep/shallow ocean, Florida Keys, Australia, may be cut by small inlets
Oceanic seamount reefs- atolls:
1. where?
2. who discovered, name of boat?
3. describe hypothesis
1. hawaii, volcanic pinnalces
2. darwin, HMS beagle
3. volcanic islands form, colonized by corals, islands sink over time (cooler, more dense), size decreases, eventually submerged, coral reefs replace volcanic material
what is an atoll?
island made entirely of reef
where are the oldest/deepest islands in hawaii?
to the northwest
as you go deeper in the ocean, is there more or less energy?
name 2 types of energy on the reef
tidal, waves
what is wave size controlled by?
wind strength and fetch
what is fetch?
distance over which waves, water, and wind are interacting; larger fetch=larger wave
describe energy motion in waves
circular orbital path
as you go deeper into the ocean, does the diamater of waves increase or decrease?
decrease; no energy
what is shoaling?
where wave base intersects with the ocean floor
which extends further down into the ocean, storm wave base or fair weather wave base?
storm wave base
how deep into the ocean can storms affect the reef?
100 feet
when waves break at the front of the reef, is it high or low energy? back of reef?
high, low
how do waves transfer energy, and how are they formed?
through water, by wind interaction with the surface of the ocean
where does wind get its energy from?
solar inputs
what controls the size of waves?
the fetch (distance) and strength of the wind
as water gets deeper, what happens to wave energy
wave energy decreases
why is wave refraction important for corals?
it allows coral structures to orient branches
which direction is wave energy in relation to the reef?
which way does water motion go?
directly up the reef
as energy increases, what happens to the coral structures?
they orient to the waves
where is the principal pull of the earth from?
the moon
when does the tide come in?
when the moon is opposite the earth
what 2 kinds of energy impact the reef?
wave energy (produced by wind) and tidal energy (
why is tidal energy important?
as tides go up, water floods across the surface and fills in lagoon; during low tide water retreats and that is important in terms of mixing open ocean water with lagoonal water, renews resources in reef system
when is the highest range of tides, and when is the lowest?
spring, neap tide
when is the gravitational pull of the moon the highest, and what happens at this time?
when the moon and the sun are alligned with the earth (new moon); highest and lowest tide occurs
why is tidal energy different from wave energy?
it moves volumes of water onto and off the reef habitat, which transfers energy and MIXES the water to maintain salinity and introduce nutrients to the reef
how long have reefs been around for?
3 1/2 billion years
difference between soft corals and hard corals:
soft have flexible skeletons
zoantharia are also known as:
hard corals
octocorallia are also known as:
soft corals
when are coelom formed in COELENTERATA?
during early embryonic development
what does CNIDARIA use nematocysts for?
feeding and defense
why are some corals bleached?
loss of symbionts due to warming
what kind of organism is a regular urchin?
grazers of reef surface
what kind of organism is a sea cucumber?
filter and sediment feeder
what kind of organism is a feather star?
passive filter feeder
how are sponges both good and bad for the reef?
strengthen reef by encrusting but many bore into reef skeleon, leading to breakdown and weakening
are starfish good for the reef?
are urchins good or bad for the reef?
both; they graze on coral and on algae
are crinoids good or bad for the reef?
neither; passive
are worms good or bad for the reef?
can be borers and weaken skeletal framework of reef
Name 5 things PHYLUM MOLLUSCA possess:
lungs, foot, eyes, heart, teeth, advanced digestive system
are MOLLUSCA herbivorous or carnivorous?
can be either
name the 3 classes of PHYLUM MOLLUSCA
1. Gastropoda (snails)
2. Bivalvia (clams)
3. Cephalopoda (squids, octopus, nautilus)
are snails destructive to the reef? what is unique about them?
no; most are grazers. some are carnivorous and are one of few to feed on crown-of-thorns
how long does the scallop live for, and where does it live?
over 100 years, shallow waters of antarctica
what is a lithophaga, and what is their role in the reef?
rock eater, clam that feeds on organic material trapped within skeletal structure of reef; passive filter feeders
what is a christmas tree worm and where does it live?
a filter feeder, lives in tubes built within reef skeleton
the energy of a wave is related to what?
the diameter of the wave orbital
what is wave base?
the loss of wave energy with depth
what kind of coral grows below fair weather wave base?
elkhorn corals
what does shoaling produce?
a current that movevs toward shallower water
when do waves refract/turn?
when they encounter a sloped surface
what are dinoflagellates?
symbionts with corals
where does the highest energy take place on the reef?
where waves break; reef crest
what is behind the reef crest?
reef flat
where do storm deposits and debree get get dumped?
back reef
what is absolute time based on?
radioactive decay
Name the 3 major periods of extinction
65, 250, 540 MA
when did reefs first develop?
at the end of the paleozoic, 250 MA
is potoski coral?
no; just a discarded skeleton
what is a nonconformity?
where igneous or metamorphic rocks are overlain by sediments
when were the first fossils present?
550 MA
how do fossils form? 4 steps
1. preservation of original skeleton
2. carbonized impressions
3. replacement by other minerals
4. casts and molds
what are the earliest preserved skeletons?
what is gradualism?
the progressive evolution of populations in response to changing stresses in the environment
what is punctuated equilibrium?
the rapid and abrupt appearance of new taxa followed by long periods of constancy
name 4 possible earth changes
1. continent position (move north, too cold for corals)
2. sealevel changes
3. climate changes
4. catastrophic events
when did reefs develop?
65 MA
when did corals develop?
250 MA
where can the horn coral be found, and how long is it?
lake huron/ontario, 6-8 inches
what can be found in the deep forereef? give 3 examples
massive head corals such as elkhorn, sea whips, sea fans
what does the refraction of waves in the forereef produce?
linear, seaward oriented spurs and intervening grooves
waht is important about the reef crest?
breaks energy from wave system
what is an example of direct stress on the reef?
chemical & oil pollution
what is an example of indirect stress on the reef?
salinity and nutrient impacts
what changes could impact the reef?
surface temperature, sea level, evaportation rate
list results from KANEOHE BAY
1. change in salinity below limits of corals
2. change in nutrient balance (too many, algae overtook, decreased light, compete)
3. bare soil led to erosion and sediment loading of reef setting
what are hydrocarbons?
foudn in shallow water, coat living polyps, lead to chemical poisoning
what is fecundity?
sexual reproductive vitality
why are hydrocarbons bad?
dissolved hydrocarbons reduce the fecundity and decrease the abundance of viable gametes; coat the ocean floor
direct stress through pollution:
chemical poisoning, fishing w/ explosives,
indirect stress through pollution:
tourism, changes in fecundity, sewage and runoff , clorox fishing, cyanide fishing, over fishing of reefal environment
how does global warming affect the reefs?
it generally does not; warming melts glaciers, sea level rises but does not damage reef unless rate of reef growth affected by temp (just relocates)
what determines temperature?
O18 and O16
orbital forcing factors of climate:
1. astronomical variations
2. eccentricity
3. tilt
4. precession- wobble of the tilt
5. effect on climate
does glacier ice have more or less O16?
what is bleaching, what causes it, and what is the result of it?
the loss of symbionts; by increased temperature, results in decrease in rate of upward growth of corals
do deeper reef corals grow upward?
where is methane stored?
in the deep ocean sediments because of cold bottom waters
what is the most passive/benefition phylum?
phylum echinodermata (starfish, etc)