Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

45 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
process in whch the cell takes in macromolecules and particulate matter by forming new vesicles from the plasma membrane:
Oligosaccharides can either be covalently bonded to ____ which make _____, or ____ which are called _____
lipids, glycolipids, proteins, glycoproteins
if you compare seawater to a very concentrated solution of sugar, what will happen?
water will go from seawater to sugar, which is the hypertonic one.
why is cell-cell recognition important?
important in sorting of the cells into tissues and organs, rejecting foreign cells.
one way ATP can power active transport is :
by transferring it's last phosphate group directly to the transport protein, which can make the protein change shape so that the solute moves.
cellular eating
particle is digested after fusing w/ a lysosome.
what is turgid?
when in a hypotonic solution, the cell wall the membrane is against the cell wall
a cell is able to take up stuff and also exclue other stuff. what is that called?
selective permeability
to pump a molecules across a membrane against its gradient, the cell must expend its own metabolic energy:
active transport (ATP supplies energy)
pond water is _____ to a paremecium.
hypotonic, so they have a contractile vacuole
Sodium-Potassium Pump exchanges _______ for _________
sodium for potassium across the plasma membrane of animal cells.
THe main electrogenic pump of plants, bacteria and fugi is a :
proton pump
the control of water balance:
the biological membrane is an example of a ______ structure, which are many molecules ordered into a higher level or organization with emergent properties byond those of the individual molecules
3 Na goes out, and 2 Potassium comes in. when does the ATP get used up?
phosphorylation causes the protein to change its conformation, and you have to use ATP after the 3 Na's bond to the protein. the release of phosphate is when the potassium ions to back inside.
extracellular substances that bind to the receptors are called:
has a coated pit w/ a fuzzy layer of protein, and receptors on it, it is very specific
some proteins can function as ________ _________ which has a stimulus that causes them to open or close.
gated channel, stimulus can either be elctrical or chemical.
oligosacchaires act as _____
ID tags
They cytoplasm of a cell is _______ in charge compared to the extracellular fluid.
the cell secrets macromoleucles by the fusion of vesicles w/ the plasma membrane, this is called:
if 2 solutions are isotonic, water moves across a membrane at an ____ rate in both directions
Molecules that start out on the inside face of the ER end up on the ____ face of the plasma membrane
the voltage across a membrane is:
membrane potential
what 2 forces act on an ion and is called the ELECTROCHEMICAL GRADIENT?
chemical force (ioin's concentration gradient) and electrical force (effect of voltage on the ion movement)
what is plasmolyzed and flaccid:
flaccid is in isotonic solution, it is normal,and plasmolyzed is when placed in a hypertonic solution.
Membrane carbohydrates are usually branched ______ w/ fewer than 15 sugar units.
The tendency for molecules of any substance to spread out into the available space:
neurons use exocytosis to release __________________
chemical signals
polar molecules and ions diffuse w/ the help of transport proteins that span the membrane:
facilitated diffusion
what are some functions of membrane proteins?
transporting solutes, pumping substances across a membrane, enzyme, signal transduction (signal causes change in protein that then relays a message to the inside of a cell), intercellular joining, cell-cell recognitions, attachemnt to the cytoskeleton and ECM.
Hydrophillic substances like ions and polar molcules avoid contact w/ the lipid bilayer by passing through __________ ________
transport proteins
A transport protein that generates voltagve across a membrane is called an :
electrogenic pump. ex. sodium-potassium pump.
how are enzymes and transport proteins alike?
can become saturated, it is specific to certain things, can be inhibited. one thing different: proteins speed up physical process, not chemical reactions.
the _______ core of the membrane impedes the transport of ions and polar molecules, which are _________
hydrophobic, hydrophilic
Diffusion is a ______ process because it decreases free energy
a substance that has been pumped across a membrane then goes back through diffusion and this can perform work. this is called:
It is not really a difference in total water concentration that causes osmosis, but a difference in the concentration of ___ water molecules that are free to cross the membrane
what are the 3 types of endocytosis?
receptor-mediated endocytosis
what things are hard to go through a membrane?
large uncharged polar molecules, and ions, even small ones.
The selective permeability of a membrane depends on ____ and ________
lipid bilayer, and specific transport proteins in the membrane
Each dye molcule may roam randomly, but there will be a _________ movement of the dye molcules across the membrane to the side that began as pure water
what things are easy to go through the membrane?
hydrophobic things (carbon dioxide and oxygen), and small polar but uncharged, like water and ethanol
molecules have intrinsic kinetic energy called:
thermal motion (heat)
the solution w/ the higher concentration of solutes is said to be:
the solution w/ a lower concentration is:
and solutions of equal solute concentration is:
the diffusion of a substance across a biological membrane whern the cell does not have to expend energy to make it happen
passive transport