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89 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Minimum amount of stimulation that can be detected on a given sensory channel
Absolute Threshold
the Gestalt principle that describes a person's tendency to supply missing information in order to perceive a holistic image
Closure Principle
The ability of a sensory system to detect changes or differences among stimuli
Differential Threshold
An initial stage of perception during which some sensations come within range of consumer's sensory receptors
the Gestalt principle whereby one part of a stimulus configuration dominates a situation while other aspects recede into the background
Figure-ground principle
the becoming real of what is initially simulation or "hype"
A sign that is connected to a product because they share some property
Minimum difference between two stimuli that can be detected by a perceiver
In semiotic terms, the product that is the focus of a message
To process information from more than one medium at a time
The process by which stimuli are selected, organized, and interpreted
The process whereby meanings are assigned to stimuli
A sign that resembles the product in some way
Research tool used to understand how a brand is positioned in consumers' minds relative to competitors
Perceptual map
Tendency for consumers to be more aware of stimuli that relate to their current needs
Perceptual vigilance
The science that focuses on the physical environment is integrated into the consumer's subjective experience
the Gestalt principle that describes how consumers tend to group objects that share similar physical characteristics
Principle of similarity
An organized collection of beliefs and feelings represented in a cognitive category
The immediate response of sensory receptors (eyes, ears, nose, mouth, fingers) to such basic stimuli as light, color, or shape rather than in terms of more complex, learning meanings
The sensory imagery that represents the intended meanings of the object
A sign that is related to a product through either conventional or agreed-upon associations
Color combinations that become strongly associated with a corporation
Trade dress
The principle that the stronger the initial stimulus the greater its change must be for it to be noticed
Weber's Law
Approaches to memory stressing different levels of processing that occur and activate some aspects of memory rather than others, depending on the nature of the processing task
Activation models of memory
A process whereby information retained for further processing is transferred from sensory memory to short-term memory
Attentional gate
The perspectives on learning that assume that learning takes place as a result of responses to external events
Behavioral learning theories
Learning that occurs when a stimulus eliciting a response is paired with another stimulus that initially doesn't elicit a response on its own but will cause a similar response over time because of its association with the first stimulus
Classical conditioning
Approaches that stress the importance of internal mental processes. This perspective views people as problem solvers who actively use information from the world around them to master their environment
Cognitive learning theory
Process in which information from short-term memory enters into long-term memory in a recognizable form
Those products already in memory plus those prominent in the retail environment that is actively considered during a consumer's choice process
Evoked set
Process whereby a learned connection between a stimulus and response is eroded so that the response is no longer reinforced
Marketing technique that reinforced regular purchasers by giving them prizes with values that increase along with the amount of purchase
Frequency marketing
Phenomenon that occurs when people react to other, similar stimuli, in much the same way they respond to the original stimulus
Halo effect
Also called operant conditioning, this occurs as the individual learns to perform behaviors that produce positive outcomes and to avoid those that yield negative outcomes
Instrumental conditioning
One way that forgetting occurs; as additional information is learned, it displaces the earlier information
Organized systems of concepts relating to brands, stores, and other concepts
Knowledge structures
Relatively permanent change in behavior caused by experience
Strategy that hides a product's origin
Masked branding
Process whereby the environment weakens responses to stimuli so that inappropriate behavior is avoided
Negative reinforcement
Data that are connected by associative links within knowledge structures
Process whereby rewards provided by the environment strengthen responses to stimuli and appropriate behavior is learned
Positive reinforcement
Learning that occurs when a response is followed by unpleasant events
Process by which desired information is recovered from long-term memory
Prominence of a brand in memory
Symbolic associations in memory
Semantic meaning
Stimulus is understood in terms of its basic characteristics such as color or shape rather than in terms of more complex, learning meanings
Sensory meaning
Schema guiding behavior in commercial settings
Service scripts
learning of a desired behavior over time by rewarding intermediate actions until the final result is obtained
Meanings in memory are activated indirectly; as a node is activated, other nodes linked to it are also activated so that meaning spread across the network
Spreading activation
Process that occurs when the behavior caused by a reaction to one stimulus occurs in the presence of other, similar stimuli
Stimulus generalization
Person must choose between two desirable alternatives
Approach-approach conflict
Person desires a goal but wishes to avoid it at the same time
Approach-avoidance conflict
Person faces a choice between two undesirable alternatives
Avoidance-avoidance conflict
Items that command fierce consumer loyalty and devotion
Cult products
Desire to satisfy a biological need in order to reduce physiological arousal
Concept that focuses on biological needs that produce unpleasant states of arousal
Drive theory
Process of learning the beliefs and behaviors endorsed by one's own culture
Process of learning the beliefs and behaviors endorsed by another culture
Perspective that behavior is largely "pulled" by expectations of achieving desirable outcomes, or positive incentives, rather than "pushed" from within
Expectancy theory
Situation in which consumers are truly involved with a product, an ad, or website
Flow state
Process whereby purchase decisions are made out of habit because the consumer lacks the motivation to consider alternatives
Goals endorsed because they are needed to achieve desired end states, or terminal values
Instrumental values
Motivation to process product-related information
Technique for uncovering consumer's associations between specific attributes and general values
Internal state that activates goal-oriented behavior
End states desired by members of a culture
Terminal values
Perspective that argues that anxiety and awareness of mortality motivates people to cling to deep-seated cultural beliefs
Terror management theory
Theory based on the premise that a state of tension is created when beliefs or behaviors conflict with one another; people are motivated to reduce this inconsistency and thus eliminate unpleasant tension
Theory cognitive dissonance
Belief that draws on mass media as a resource to satisfy needs
Culture's ranking of the relative importance of values
Value system
People who believe that once basic material needs are satisfied, additional income does not lead to happiness
Voluntary simplifiers
The particular form of consumption chosen to satisfy a need
Person's realistic appraisal of his or her qualities
Actual self
Emphasis on self-assertion and mastery, often associated with traditional male gender roles
Agentic goals
Person's feelings about his or her own body
Body cathexis
Consumer's subjective evaluation of his or her physical self
Body image
Emphasis on affiliation and the fostering of harmonious relations, often associated with traditional female gender roles
Communal goals
Definition of self-created by the external objectives with which one surrounds oneself
Extended self
Self-included shift in consciousoness, often focusing on some unattainable or improbable goal; sometimes is a way of compensating for a lack of external stimulation or for dissastisfaction with the actual self
model or exemplar, of appearance valued by culture
Ideal of beauty
Process of imagining the reaction of others towards oneself
Looking-glass self
Beliefs a person holds about his or her own attributes and how he or she evaluates these qualities
Approaches based on the prediction that products will be chosen when their attributes match some aspect of the self
Self-image congruence models
Sociological approach stressing that relationships with other people play a large part in forming the self; people live in a symbolic environment, and the meaning attached to any situation or object is determined by a person's interpretation of these symbols
Symbolic interactionism
Perspective that people who have an incomplete self-definition in some context will compensate by acquiring symbols associated with a desired social identity
Symbolic self-completion theory
Tracking consumer's buying habits very closely, and then crafting products and messages tailored precisely to people's wants and needs based on this info
Database marketing
Japanese philosophy that translates customers' feelings into design elements
Kansei engineering
The process involved when individuals or groups select, purchase, use, or dispose of products, services, ideas, or experiences to satisfy needs and desires
Consumer behavior
A person who identifies a need or desire, makes a purchase and/or disposes of the product