Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/129

Click to flip

129 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

What newspaper used the term 'Butskellism'


and what did it mean?

'The economist'-a mixture of the names of Tory Chancellor R.A Butler and Labour shadow chancellor Hugh Gaitskell. Described the economic and welfare policies associated with post war consensus
Who was Prime Minster 1951?
Winston Churchill
How old was Churchill when he took office?

76
What was Churchill described as and why?


A 'caretaker' prime minister because he had lacked the drive he once had during war period

Who was Prime minister 1955-57?


Anthony Eden

What was Eden's job under Churchills wartime government?


Foreign Minister

Why was Eden initially popular?

Was young and had a good wartime record

Why did Eden call an election in 1955?

So he had a strong mandate

How many seats to the Conservatives get in comparison to Labour?


Tories: 344 seats (+13)


Labour: 277 (-18)

What were GB'S unemployment figures in 1955 and what was so important about this?

215,000-only 1% of workforce - lowest figure in recent history

Who owned the Suez Canal?

GB and France

Why was the Suez canal important to GB?

The route to India which was used to ship oil to GB, US and Europe

Who was Egyptian president at this time?

Colonel Nasser

What did Nasser threaten to do to Suez Canal?


Nationalise it

What was Eden's fear about Nasser and Canal?


Nasser had close relations with USSR and feared canal would fall into soviet hands-disrupting GB trade links

Who did GB devise a plan with and what was this plan?


France and Israel and to invade Suez Canal zone

Who was angry with Eden when news about Suez Canal got out?


President Eisenhower

What did Eisenhower threaten to do if GB invaded Egypt?

Sell US reserves of the pound and collapse it's value
What did Eden decide to do in light of Eisenhower's threat?
Pulled out of invasion to avoid economic collaspse and resigned

What did the Suez Crisis show about GB?
There was a significant reduction in GB world power and recognition that GB couldn't act independently without US approval

Who was Harold Macmillan in Eden's government?


Chancellor of Exchequer

By how many seats did Tory government win by in 1959?


21

What was a problem with the recovering post war economy?


If wages rose too quickly, spending would increase, which would leave to spending increasing also

What was the problem with this increased spending and trade?


As wages rose, demands for imports increased which threated to put back trade deficit

What was the main policy between 1951-64 to balance wages and spending?

STOP-GO POLICIES !!!!!
When were 'stop' policies used?

Whenever wages and spending looked like it was getting too high
What are some examples of 'stop' policies?

Limiting imports, capping wages of state employees, raising interest rates on borrowing and raising taxes

What was the intention of 'stop' policies?

Intended to slow consumer spending to prevent rising inflation

When were 'go' policies used?

When the economy was stagnating

What are some examples of 'go' policies?


Tax cuts, lower interest rates, caps of wages lifted
What was the intention to 'go' policies?

To renew the public spending power

What were issues of 'stop-go' policies?

1) seemed that the government were making it up as they went along


2) 'Go' policies led to a temporary, unsustainable boom


3) 'Stop' policies didn't allow long term economic growth

What was the issue in manufacturing?

GB manufacturing was in decline compared to other countries e.g shipbuilding and textiles came from far east

What was the economic situation by 1964?

Still a trade deficit and unemployment was up to nearly a million (North and Scotland hit worst again)

What was positives about tax cuts?

Gained temporary popularity
What was a problem of tax cuts?
Reduced government ability to invest in welfare services
What did increase under the Tories?

Benefit spending
Why was there an increase of benefit spending?

Increased population-wasn't necessarily to help poor
What was an issue with new houses built?

Went to private owners rather than poor council tenants
What were the views of the declining GB empire at this time?

Some Tories refused to except this fact and others were more prepared?

What were the policies which have mixed signals on the Tories stance on the decline of GB empire?

1) Decolonization


2) Defence


3) EEC

What was decolonization policy?

Macmillan was prepared to accept empire was declining and granted independence to many African colonies

Who wasn't in favour of declining empire?

Winston Churchill
What in defence did Tories spend a lot of money on?

Nuclear weapons

What does the large investment in nuclear weapons suggest?

Government still aspired to keep GB as a world power

Why did this heavy investment in defence annoy Labour?

Some believed it was a waste of money which should have been spent on more important things such as NHS
When was European community set up?

1957

What 6 countries made up European community?

France, Belgium, West Germany, Holland, Italy and Luxembourg

What was the purpose of the EEC?

to foster and friendly relationship to prevent future wars and create a 'common market' by encouraging free trade

Who originally didn't want to join EEC?
Churchill, Eden and Macmillan
Why did some oppose joining EEC?
They favoured GB's existing common market and feared they would lose control of the economy
Which Tory was keen to join EEC and who changed his mind?


Ted Heath and Harold Macmillan

Why did Macmillan and others change minds about EEC?

Countries who had joined had economic booms-saw the economic success it was -not joining in 1957 was a mistake

When did GB apply to EEC and who rejected their application?

1961 and France

When did GB eventually join EEC?

1973

What were the 3 major scandals between 1962-63?

1) John Vassal '62


2) Harold 'Kim' Philby '63


3) The Profumo affair '63

How did these three scandals link together?

Involved security threats of important GB information due USSR spies

Who succeeded Macmillan?

Alec Douglas-Home

What was the issue with Douglas-Home?

Was a compromise candidate, lacked charisma, had v. aristocratic background (was knighted and a lord)

Due to his privileged background, what was Douglas-Home accused of?

Being out of touch with ordinary voters

Who were the three politicians that resigned in 1959 and what was there role?

Chancellor of Exchequer: Peter Thorneycroft


Treasury Minsiter: Nigel Birch


Financial secretary to the treasury: Enoch Powell

Why did 3 politicians resign in 1957?

They believed Macmillans government was spending too much which could cause future economic problems.


They also believed inflation was the biggest threat to the economy no unemployment

What did the 3 politicans propose instead?

Spending cuts, tax rises and an end to subsidies to nationalised industries

What was the 'mixed economy' that the conservatives believed in?

A mixture of nationalised industry and private companies

Did the three resignations have impact on public?

Initial embarrassment but due to low unemployment levels and low inflation, had little impact

Why did Tory popularity start to decline in 1962?

Those in his government were from very priveledged backgrounds (35 memebrs of government were former Etonians)

Who was Labour leader under Macmillan?

Hugh Gaitskell then Harold Wilson

What did Gaitskell and Wilson accuse Tories of?

That they had risen to success because of their connections and not their ability

What was the event that became known as the 'Night of long Knives'?

Macmillan sacked 7 ministers from his cabinet and replaced them with younger men

Why did MacMillan sack so many ministers?

To change the image of the ageing and priveledged Tories

Who just became US president in 1960 and WAS young and popular (unlike Tories themselves) ?

JFK

What dominated Newspapers and TV's in late 50s and 60s?

Youth, teenage culture

What impact did the, 'Night of Long Knives' have?

MacMillan was seen as ruthless but the widespread sacking proved popular and showed MacMillan was capable of tacking action.

What were positives of Alec Douglas-Home?

Skilled PM and astuite politician

How long did 50s and 60s economic boom last?

Till 70s

What was happening to GB economy in 50s and 60s?

In a consumer spending boom but still declining

What did Tories economically oppose?

No further Nationalisation and wanted to end wartime rationing and controls over economy

When was rationing offically ended?

1954

What were to Tories commited too as a result of consensous?

Full employment



What were unemployment figures during period?

averaged at 500,000 with lows of 300,000

Names three colonies GB decolonised?

Kenya 1963, Malyasia 1957, Ghana, 1957

Why were stop-go policies referred to as a failure?

A failure of government policy to develop consistent policies to ensure growth

Which two countries economy were alarmingly out competing GB?

West Germany and Japan

How much growth did Japan experience in 1960 compaired to GB?

Japan: 12% growth

GB: 4% growth


What did Macmillan believes in when it came to social division?

'One nation conservatism'-a united GB, despite social class which could work togteher to solve problems

What was corporatism?

Coporalists believed uniting labour, managemnt and government would cause economic goals to be acheived

What two organisations were set up as a result as Macmillan's corporatism in 1962?

NEDDY and NICKY

What did the organisation of NEDDY stand for?

The national development council and office

What was NEDDY?

An institution where management and unions could discuss economy and co-operate together

What was the problem with NEDDY?

Was unable to force any legal control over industry or unions-hoped they would volunteer

What did NICKY stand for?

The National incomes comission

Whats was NICKY and what was its role?

An advisory council of economists and industry experts which gave guidance to employers and unions about what the government thought were 'reasonable' pay rises

What was the problem with NICKY?

Couldn't efforce any decisions so unions mostly ignored calls for wage restrictions

Why did unions not want wage restrictions?

Members wanted improved living conditions and greater spending power to partake in the consumer boom

What was the unemployment rate in 1963?

878,000-highest since end of war

What were economic impacts of increased consumer spending?

Increased demand for foreign imports, causing problems with balance of payment defecit

What did Macmillan do in 1961 about the value of the pound?

Nothing-refused to devaule it and instead borrowed £714m from IMF to support it

What was the rise in trade union membership?

1940: 6,613

1960: 9,835


What type of leadership emerged within Trade unions and give an example?

Leaders with priveledged backgrounds started to emerge e.g Vic Feathers and Len Murray of TUC

What was the problem with the new type of trade union leadership?

Leaders had experienced 20s and 30s depression whereas young memebrs hadn't. Young members wanted less socialists principles but wage rises to participate in consumer boom

Who did young trade union members compare themselves too?

Unpaid shop stewards

What were the problem of stewards?

They built power bases, called strikes (even though they had no constituitonal right), staged walk outs

Who attempted a concilatory policy?

Walter Monckton-Minister of Labour



How many strikes were there in the Tory dominance in comparison the Labour gov. 1945?

1945-54: 1,751 strikes per year-involved 500,000 workers

1955-64: 2,521 strikes per year-involved 1.1m workers




What 1961 hit comedy film satirised GB industry relations?

'I'm Alright Jack'

What book did Macmillan write in 1938 and what was it about?

'The middle way' and about conservative welfarism

What was conservative walfarism?

Advocating government action to regulate private enterprise and to end social depreviation through welfare

What did Macmillan want to ensure through welfare?

That there was no return to the poverty of the 1930s

Who's moral duty did he believe it was to help the poor?

Upper and middle class'

Who proposed cuts to welfare and was therefore in minority?

Treasury Minister: Enoch Powell

Who spent more on welfare in 50s and 60s than GB?

France and Germany

What was the rise in GB GDP spent on welfare and how much was also taken up by pensions?

GDP spent on welfare rose from 3% to 4% and pensions took up a further 3%

What did the Child Poverty action group claim in 1963?

That 720,000 children were living in poverty

What caused the debates about welfare?

It's increasing cost and persistant poverty led to some questioning its effetiveness

What education report was in 1959?

Crowther Report

What education report was in 1963?

Newsomm Report

What did both these reports add encouragment towards?

Growth of comprehensive schools

Why was the Crowther report admissioned?

Government was concious of changing social and industrial needs of society and therefore changes in education was required

What were the 7 recommendations Crowther report made?

1) School leaving age should be 16

2)Create more country colleges and technical schools for post 16 educations


3) Have 6th form teachers of the 'highest intellectual callibre'


4) Widen number of sixth form courses


5)Don't treat those not going to uni second best


6)Enable all capable students to take O-levels


7) Faclitate a large no. of teachers to bring about these changes

When were A-levels and O-levels introduced?

1951

What was the title of the Newsomm Report?

'Half our Future'

What was the role of the Newsomm Report?

To examine education provisions of low ability children

What were the 2 main findings of the Newsomm report?

1) Failings in education in poor areas

2) Inner city schools had a high turnover of teachers (little continuity)




What did the Newsomm report recommend?

1) New focus on research into teaching methods to lower ability students

2) moore attention to teach deprived children social and personal skills


3) Sex educations essential


4) A government party set up to examine links between deprivation and poor education


5) More practical subjects provided for lower ability students


6) Shouldn't make children sit exams if not appropriate

What was the problem with universities in the 1960s?

Offered very few science courses with many prioritising arts-were an instituion resistant to change


What university commitee was set up in 1961?

Robbins committee

What truths did the Robbins committee state?

1) GB was being overtaken by other countries in terms of uni performance


2) Recommended a goal of 5x more student places by 1980

That were the 5 goals that they stated uni education should acheive?

1) Must give 'instruction skills' to ensure country has a compentant workforce

2) Must develop 'general powers of mind' in students to ensure they are broadly well educated


3) Teaching academics should continue research


4)Teaching also has a social role


What were some of the results of the Robbins commitee?

University of East sussex set up in 1961 and a Univsersity in Kent which both adopted a multi disciplinery approach to learning so students could learn a range of subjects instead of just one