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35 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is Connective tissue?
Most Abundant tissue in the body
Many varied forms
Delicate tissue, paper webs, strong tough cords, rigid bones and fluid
What are the 4 Functions of Connective tissue?
1. Connects
Tissue to Tissue
Muscle to Muscle
Muscle to Bone
Bone to Bone
2. Supports
3. Transports
4. Defends
What are the 9 Types of Connective Tissue
1. Loose, Ordinary
2. Adipose
3. Reticular
4. Dense Fibrous
5. Bone
6. Cartilage
7. Blood
8. Muscle
9. Nervous
Loose, Ordinary (Areolar)
*Found between other tissues and organs
*Loose tells us it's stretchable
*Ordinary because it is the most widely distributed
*Connects structures, acts like a glue that is elastic
*Areolar means "like a small space" and refers to the bubbles that appear as the tissue is pulled apart
*The Matrix (intercellular material)
The Matrix (intercellular material)
contains 6 fibers and cells (most to least):
1. Fibroblasts - (Builder) connective cells that synthesize fibers and gels them together.
2. Macrophages - (Eater) are large Phagocyte cells. Are parts of the bodies vital defense mechanisms.
3. Mast Cells - (Feeder) Wound healing
4. White Blood Cells (Defenders) are Leukocytes
5. Fat Cells
6. Plasma
*Predominately Fat Cells
*Contain Fewer Fibroblasts, Macrophages and Mast Cells
*Forms Protective pads around Kidneys and other structures
*Storage for excess food - stores fat soluble vitamins
*Obesity - body 20% above ideal weight. Find your BMI score. Every add'l lb the heart must pump and add'l 2/3rd of a mile.
*A three dimensional web
*Forms the framework of delicate structures ex. Spleen, lymph nodes and bone marrow, capillaries and nerve fibers
*Defends the body against microbes and injurious substances out of the blood and lymph nodes by engulfing and destroying them
*Makes new Reticular Fibers
*one of the most highly specialized forms of connective tissue
*The Bone Cells (Osteocytes) are embedded in a matrix of Organic Collagen and Mineral Salts
*The mineral salts make up about 65% of the total matrix and is responsible for the hardness of bone
Bone Additional Cells are:
Osteoblasts-bone forming cells
Osteoclasts-bone destroying cells
Bones are the organs of?
The Skeletal System
What are the functions of the bone?
Attachment for muscle
Mineral Reservoir
Production of blood cells (Hemopoiesis)
What is the basic structural unit of bone?
The Haversian System
What does the Haversian system consist of?
Lacunae, Lamellae, Canaliculi, Membrane Bone, Endochondral Bone
small spaces in which bone cells are located
concentric layers of bone matrix
small canals that connect lacunae and osteocytes to blood vessels in the Central Haversian Canal
Membrane bone
formed with Membranous tissue
Ex. flat bones of skull (aponeurosis)
Endochondral Bone
formed by the replacement of cartilage.
Ex. growth plates and sutures
*differs from other connective tissue in that only one cell type is present (chondrocytes)
*Chondrocytes produce both the fibers and the gristlike ground substance of cartilage
*Chondrocytes are produced in the Lacunae
*Cartilage is avascular, therefore nutrients must reach by way of diffusion
*Movement is through the matrix from blood vessels in the perichondrium
*Injuries heal slowly because of the inefficient delivery of nutrient
What are the 3 types of cartilage?
Strongest and most durable; matrix is rigid and filled with strong white fibers. Serves as shock absorbers between vertebrae and at the knee (Intervertebral discs and Meniscus)
Elastic (cartilage)
Contains large numbers of fine elastic-like fibers for strength and flexibility (External Ear and Larynx)
Hyaline (cartilage)
Shiny and translucent; most common (Articular Cartilage-covering the ends of bones into joints and support rings of respiratory tubes)
Connective tissue in a liquid state(has no ground substance or fibers)
How is blood divided?
1. Plasma- 55% liquid fraction
2. Corpuscles- 45%
Water makes up 90%; Proteins -Antibodies 10%
Erythrocytes 99% (Red Blood Cells) contain Hemoblobin which is principal carrier of exygen
Leukocytes 0.2% (White Blood Cells) -form in bone marrow; function is Phagocytosis
Thrombocytes 0.6-1.0% (Platelets) - coagulation/clotting
What are the functions of Blood?
1. Movement of respiratory gases
2. Movement of nutrients
3. Movement of waste products
4. Helps maintain body temperature
5. Regulates ph of body fluid
6. Destroys harmful microorganisms
What are the 3 Muscle Types?
Skeletal (muscle)
*Muscle attached to bones
*Also called striated or voluntary
*Striated refers to cross striations (stripes)
*Voluntary means willed control
Visceral (muscle)
*Found in the walls of viscera
*Also called Non-striated or Involuntary
*It is not controlled under normal circumstances
Cardiac (muscle)
*Found in the Heart
*Also called striated Involuntary
What are the 3 Nervous tissue functions?
1. Irritability (Excitability)
2. Conductivity
3. Response
Nervous tissue consists of:
Neuroglia - connecting and supporting cells
Neurons - Functional unit of system
Neuron Functional unit of system includes:
Soma - Cell Body
Axon - Process that carries impulse away from the cell body
Dendrites - process that carry impulses toward the cell body