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59 Cards in this Set

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extracellular matrix (ECM)
Major constituent of connective tissue. Consist of protein fibers (collagen, reticular and elastic fibers) and ground substance.
ground substance
Highly hydrophilic viscous complex of anionic macromolecules (glycosaminoglycans and proteoglycans) and multiadhesive glycoproteins (laminin, fibronectin) that stabilizes ECM by binding to receptor proteins (integrins) on surface of cells and to other matrix components.
tissue fluid
A fluid that bathes and surrounds the cells of multicellular animals.
edema
an abnormal accumulation of fluid beneath the skin or in one or more cavities of the body that produces swelling. Caused by increased secretion of fluid into the interstitium or impaired removal of this fluid.
polysaccharide
long carbohydrate molecules of repeated monomer units joined together by glycosidic bonds. range in structure from linear to highly branched.
glycosaminoglycan (GAG)
Linear polysaccharides formed by repeating disaccharide units usually composed of a uronic acid and a hexosamine. Hexosamine could be glucosamine or galactosamine and uronic acid can be glucuronic or iduronic acid.
acid mucopolysaccharide
the amorphous, PAS-positive intercellular substance of most connective tissue. Formed by fibroblasts and osteoblasts.
glucosamine
an amino sugar and a prominent precursor in the biochemical synthesis of glycosylated proteins and lipids. natural compound that is found in healthy cartilage.
galactosamine
hexosamine derived from galactose. This amino sugar is a constituent of some glycoprotein hormones such as follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH).
glucuoronic acid
common in carbohydrate chains of proteoglycans. It is part of mucous animal secretions (such as saliva), cell glycocalyx and intercellular matrix
iduronic acid
major uronic acid component of the glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) dermatan sulfate, and heparin.
hyaluronic acid
Largest, most unique and ubiquitous GAG. Long polymer of disaccharide glucosamine: glucuronate. Syntheszed in ECM by hyaluronate synthetase found in cell membrane.
chondroitin sulfate
sulfated glycosaminoglycan (GAG) composed of a chain of alternating sugars (N-acetylgalactosamine and glucuronic acid). an important structural component of cartilage and provides much of its resistance to compression.
heparan sulfate
sulfated polysaccharide that is found on the surface of most cells as part of proteoglycans. Also present in the extracellular matrix. The polysaccharide mediates the interactions between a number of different proteins.
dermatan sulfate
glycosaminoglycan found mainly in skin
keratan sulfate
found in the cornea, cartilage, and bone. large, highly hydrated molecules which in joints can act as a cushion to absorb mechanical shock.
heparin
sulfated glucosaminoglycan that acts locally as a blood anticoagulant.
proteoglycan
protein that is heavily glycosylated.major component of the animal extracellular matrix. Basic unit consists of a "core protein" with one or more covalently attached glycosaminoglycan (GAG) chain(s).
integrin
receptor that mediates attachment between a cell and the tissues surrounding it, which may be other cells or the ECM. Also plays a role in cell signaling and thereby regulate cellular shape, motility, and the cell cycle.
fibronectin
glycoprotein of the extracellular matrix that binds to membrane-spanning receptor proteins called integrins.fibronectin also binds extracellular matrix components such as collagen, fibrin and heparan sulfate proteoglycans
laminin
an important and biologically active part of the basal lamina, influencing cell differentiation, migration, adhesion as well as phenotype and survival
collagen fiber
An individual scleroprotein fiber composed of fibrils and usually arranged in branching bundles of indefinite length. Also called white fiber.
collagen
group of naturally occurring proteins found in animals, especially in the flesh and connective tissues of mammals.
procollagen
the precursor of collagen, synthesized in osteoblasts and fibroblasts and subsequently converted to form collagen by procollagen peptidase.
tropocollagen
The molecular component of a collagen fiber, consisting of three polypeptide chains coiled around each other.
reticular fiber
type of fiber in connective tissue composed of type III collagen. Reticular fibers crosslink to form a fine meshwork (reticulin). This network acts as a supporting mesh in soft tissues such as liver, bone marrow, and the tissues and organs of the lymphatic system.
oxytalan fiber
fibres are a component of the extracellular matrix.They can be found on the surface of smooth muscles.
elaunin fiber
component of elastic fibers formed from a deposition of elastin between oxytalan fibers. It is found in the periodontal ligament and in the connective tissue of the dermis, particularly in association with sweat glands.
elastic fiber
bundles of proteins (elastin) found in extracellular matrix of connective tissue and produced by fibroblasts and smooth muscle cells in arteries. formed from the elastic microfibril and amorphous elastin.
elastin
deposited between microfibrils, forming larger fibers.
microbibril
very fine fibril, or fiber-like strand, consisting of glycoproteins and cellulose.
desmosine
cross-link is formed from three allysyl side chains plus one unaltered lysyl side chain from the same or neighbouring polypeptides.
It is found in elastin. responsible for the rubber properties of elastin.
isodesmosine
a lysine derivative found in elastin.
fibrillin
Large glycoprotein. Binds elastin and forms scaffolding necessary for deposition of elastin.
fibromodulin
member of a family of small interstitial proteoglycans. It may participate in the assembly of the extracellular matrix as it interacts with type I and type II collagen fibrils and inhibits fibrillogenesis in vitro.
mesenchyme
Where connective tissue originates from. An embryonic tissue formed by elongated undifferentiated cells
fibroblast
Originate locally from undifferentiated mesenchymal cells and spend all their life in connective tissue. Active cell.
fibrocyte
Quiescent cell.
myofibroblast
cell that is in between a fibroblast and a smooth muscle cell in differentiation.
adipocyte
Connective tissue cells that have become specialized for storage of neutral fats or for the production of heat.
unilocular
having only one locus, chamber, or cell.
multilocular
having or divided into many small chambers or vesicles
signet ring
a malignant cell type seen predominantly in carcinomas. contain a large amount of mucin, which pushes the nucleus to the cell periphery.
chylomicron
lipoprotein particles that consist of triglycerides, phospholipids, cholesterol, and proteins. They transport dietary lipids from the intestines to other locations in the body. one of the five major groups of lipoproteins (VLDL, IDL, LDL, HDL) that enable fats and cholesterol to move within the water-based solution of the bloodstream.
pericyte
type of cell found in the central nervous system. located surrounding the endothelial cell layers of the capillary network in the brain. play an integral role in the maintenance of the blood–brain barrier as well as several other homeostatic and hemostatic functions of the brain.
mast cell
Originate from hematopoietic stem cells in bone marrow, circulate in blood then move into connective tissue where they remain and execute their functions. Numerous near small blood vessels in skin and mesenteries (perivascular) and mucosa lining digestive and respiratory tracts (mucosal)
histamine
an organic nitrogen compound involved in local immune responses as well as regulating physiological function in the gut and acting as a neurotransmitter. triggers the inflammatory response.
macrophage
cells produced by the differentiation of monocytes in tissues. Monocytes and macrophages are phagocytes. They phagocytose cellular debris and pathogens. They also stimulate lymphocytes and other immune cells to respond to pathogens. They are specialized phagocytic cells that attack foreign substances, infectious microbes and cancer cells through destruction and ingestion.
monocyte
type of white blood cell and are part of the innate immune system of vertebrates. replenish resident macrophages and dendritic cells under normal states, and in response to inflammation signals, move quickly to sites of infection in the tissues and divide/differentiate into macrophages and dendritic cells to elicit an immune response. stored in the spleen.
plasma cells
white blood cells which produce large volumes of antibodies. They are transported by the blood plasma and the lymphatic system. Like all blood cells, they ultimately originate in the bone marrow; however, these cells leave the bone marrow as B cells, before terminal differentiation into plasma cells, normally in lymph nodes.
leukocyte
Transient cells of most connective tissues. Originate in bone marrow and move to connective tissue where they reside for a few days then die by apoptosis.
loose connective tissue
most common type of connective tissue in vertebrates. It holds organs in place and attaches epithelial tissue to other underlying tissues. It also surrounds the blood vessels and nerves. fibroblasts are widely dispered in this tissue. The cells of this type of tissue are generally separated by quite some distance by a gel-like gelatinous substance primarily made up of collagenous and elastic fibers.
named based on the "hair weave" and type of its constituent fibers.
areolar connective tissue
most widespread connective tissue of the body. It is used to attach the skin to the underlying tissue. It also fills the spaces between various organs and thus holds them in place as well as cushions and protects them. It also surrounds and supports the blood vessels.
lamina propria
thin layer of loose connective tissue which lies beneath the epithelium and together with the epithelium constitutes the mucosa.
dense irregular connective tissue
has fibers that are not arranged in parallel bundles as in dense regular connective tissue.
dense regular collagenous connective tissue
tissue the bundles of collagen are all parallel to each other.
dense regular elastic connective tissue
many fibers, scarce cells, fibers are regularly oriented - arranged in bundles. found in: tendons, ligaments, capsules, fasciae, and fibrous membranes. very few cells are present, most of them are fibroblasts; some mast cells and macrophages as well
thermogenin
an uncoupling protein found in the mitochondria of brown adipose tissue. It is used to generate heat by non-shivering thermogenesis.
Connective tissue proper
used for those examples in which the fibrous component is the predominant feature. It's the group which is most often spoken of as "connective tissue," although really it's only one of several subclassifications.