Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/117

Click to flip

117 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is the Cornea?
its the clear membrane that covers the eye.
What is the pupil?
black opening in the eye
it can restrict or dilulate
What is the Iris?
it is the color part of the eye
Whats is the purpose of the lens?
focus and bend light as it enters the eye
what is the Retina?
light sensative membrane
2 receptor sites: the cones and rods
What are rods
long thin blunt
Use them for dim lighting and night vison
slow change
What are cones
short and fat
responsible for seeing details and bright lights
What is the Fovea?
small area of the retina that contains only cones.
Best visual aquity
what is the path of light?
Bipolar & ganglion cells
optic nerve
optic chiasm
thalamus
visual cortex of he occipital lobe
What is the Trichromatic theory of color vison?
helm and holmston
Only 3 color cone- red green, and blue
evidence is colorblindness
What is the opponent process theory of color vison?
Herring
there are 4 basic color in 2 pair cones
Red- green yellow-blue white- black
what are the 3 parts of the ear?
outer
middle
inner
What are the parts of the outer ear?
Pinna- detect location of ear( flesh part on head)
Ear canal- travels to ear drum
ear drum- membrane that seperates the outer and middle ear
What are the parts of the middle ear
hammer hits the anvil which hits the stirrup to amplify sound
oval window seperates the middle and inner ear
What are the parts of the inner ear?
Cochlea- coiled tube line with Basinlar membrane( hair cells)
sound waves bend the hair n stimulates sending sound to the auditory nerve
what is the place theory of hearing?
helmholtz
different locations make different Basinlar membranes vibrate in different pitches
What is frequency?
hair cell receptors vibrates the # of times per second as sound wave
When is frequency correct?
sound waves are less than or equal to 500 hertz
When is place theory correct?
sound waves are greater than 1000 hertz
when are both theories corrtect?
sound waves are between 500- 1000 hertz
Who is Gestalt?
german
sensations are processed through perceptual rules (1900)
What is the law of similarity?
objects of similar size, shape, and color are percieved as one unit
what is the law of closure?
the tendency to fill in gaps that are incomplete
what is the law of good continuation?
elements that are follow the same direction are percieved as 1 unit
ex the interstate
what is the law of proximity?
objects that are close togetherare are percieved as one unit
what is depth perception?
ability to judge an objects distance
what is monocular cues?
cues using one eye
what is relative size?
objects that are closer appear larger ( monocular)
what is linear perspective?
parallel lines seem to meet in the distance
what is texture gradient?
surfaces farther away become blurry and less defined
what is overlap?
partially blocked objects seems farther away (monocular)
what is motion parallax?
when moving objects closer to seem to be moving faster
what are binocular cues
cues that use both eyes
what is binocular disparity
each eye gets a slighly different image
3-d images
what is perceptual constancies?
see things at a constant despite sensory input
ex friend is the correct size despite being far away
what is an EEG
measures brain wave activity while sleepin
what is REM
rapis eye movement- heighten arousal of body during sleep
what is NREM
quiet calm sleep
what is sleep pattern
5- 90 min cycles
stages 3 &4 only happend in the first 2 cycles
dreaming in REM becomes longer with each cycle
what is the sleep cycle?
4 stages of Nrem- last 50-50 min
Rem sleep for 5- 15 mins
Whats is the Restorative theory on why we sleep
NREM= physical rejeunvation
REM= mental rejeunvation
Support- longer time in NREM after physical activity
What is the adaptive theory on why we sleep?
Evolutionary
animals with few predators sleep longer,
How does the sleep change
in womb- sleep longer farther along mom is
newborns sleep 16 hrs with 50% REm
as we get older we sleep less
What are Hobson's 5 characteristics of Sleep?
intense emotion
illogical content and organization
bizzare sensations
bizzare details accepted
images difficult to remember
What is lucid dreaming?
fully awake
capable of normal thought and activity ( day dreaming)
What did Freud believe about dreams?
dreams are fulfilled repressed wishes
manifest content- dream images
latent content- disguised meaning of the dream
not substained by research
What si the activation- synthesis model of dreaming?
proposed by hobson and mccarley- dreams are our subjective awareness of the brains internally generated activity during sleep
What is insomia?
inability to fall asleep or feel adequately rested
triggered by stressful events
what is stimulus control?
condition ppl with insomia to associate the bed with sleep only
what is sleep apnea?
stops breathing during the night
caused by carbon dioxide build up in blood
causes momentary awakening
what is night terrors
intense fear or panic
happens in stage 3 and 4
child wakes up n goes back to sleep
no recall
what is narcalepsy?
exessive daytime sleepiness
brief laspes into sleep
brought on by arousal
What are the two types of conditioning?
classical
operant
who discovered classical conditioning
ivan pavlov- using dog salvia experiment
food n footsteps
What is a neutral stimulus
something that does not trigger an automatic response
EX. hearing footsteps
what is the unconditioned stimulus?
unlearned response to a natural stimuls
ex. food
what is the uncondition response?
unlearned response to the uncondition stimulus
ex. savlivating to food
what is the condition stimulus?
neutral stimulus becomes a reflexive reponse
ex. footsteps
what is the condition response?
learned response to a neutral stimulus
ex salivating when hearing footsteps
what is higher order conditionting?
neutral stimulus is paired with an already existing condition stimulus
What are the factors that affect conditioning?
elapsed time- must be brief b/t NS n UCS
stimulus generalization- occurance of a learned response to similiar stimuli
stimulus discrimation- to specific stimulus not similar stimuli
what is spontaneous recovery?
reappearance of a previously extinguished CR
What does Watson do?
sells classical conditioning to AMericans
using rat fear in baby
What does MAry Jones do?
deconditions fear
What are the problems of Classical conditioning
1. cant explain language production or diversity
2.cant explain behavior changes n instincts
3.no application
4. no mental processes used
what is operant conditioning
introduced by B.F Skinner
learning of non reflexive behavior= voluntary
shaped by consequences
Who influence operant conditioning?
thorndikes law of effects- effect of response determindd if future responses will be strenghten or weaken( cat and boxes)
What is postive reinforcement?
addition of something pleasant or desirable to increase likilhood of repeating behavior
what uis negative reinforcement?
removal of something unpleasant to increase likelihood of repeating behavior
ex taking advil for headaches
what is a primary reinforcing stimulus?
naturally reinforcing
ex water food sex sleep, termination of pain
what is secondary/ conditioning
something we learned to associate with primary
ex money for good grades
what is token and social factors
token- something tangable- money stars
social- nontangable- praise
What is continous reinforcement?
always give reinforcement after desire behavior
what is partial reinforcement?
no giving all the time
less likly that behavior will become extinct
what is a ratio schedule of reinforcement?
give reinforcement after a certain mumber of times
what is interval schedule of reinforcement?
given after passage of time
what are the 2 types of ratio?
fixed ratio- fix # of responses
Variable ratio- given after varying responses based on averages ex. slot machines
what are the two types of interval schedules?
fixed- following a specific period of time- pay checks
variable- varying amount of time based on averages ex random drug test
What is are the two types of punishment?
-application- add something undesirable ( spanking)
Removal-take away reinforcing stimulus ( car or phone priveldges)
What are the rules for using punishment?
1. must be consistent
2. immediate- cant wait till dad gets home
3. appropriate- must fit crime
what is shaping>
reinforce successively closer aproximations until correct behavior is displayed.
What is insight?
sudden realization on how to solve a problem
Kohler- apes n bananas experiment
what is observational learning?
learning by observing others.
BoBO doll experiment- watch the movies n childern mimiced behavior
What is memory?
process that enables aquiring, retaining and retriving info
what are the 3 fundemental processes of memory?
encoding- enter info to be stored
storage
retrieval
What is consolidation?
must take place
synthesis of protein
actually changes brains to retain info
What are the 3 stages of memory proposed by atkinson n shiffrin in 1968?
sensory- large amounts of info but fades quickly
short term- holds up 9 items for 30 seconds
long term
what is displacement?
when short term memory is full
new item replaces old item
what is chunking?
to improve short term memory remember things in chunks like phone numbers
what is maintence rehearsal?
repetition of info
to maintain beyond 30 secs
never in long term memory
what is elaborative rehearsal
focus on meaning of info n relate it to something u already know or a topic of interest
What are tge 2 types of long term memory
explict- consious recall
implicit- unconsious recall
what are the 2 types of explicit memory
episodic-events u experience
sematic- general knowledge for everyone
what is procedural info
implicit memory such as motor skills
what is retrieval?
process to recall stored info
triggered by clue or hint
what tip of the tongue?
sensation of knowing
temporary unable to retrieve info
how does retrieval fail?
inadequte of missing retrieval cues
what is free recall?
produc info with no retrieval cues (essay test
what is cued recalled?
rememberin info in response to a cue
(matching or fill in the blank test)
what is recognition?
indentify current info from choices ( multiple choice)
what is primacy effect
recall earlier info better
(factor that affect retrieval)
what is recency effect?
recall most recent info better
(factor that affects retrieval
how does enviroment context affect retrieval?
recall info better in the same enviromentas u learned it
how was emotional state affect retrieval?
recall info better in same emotion u learned it
what is a flashbuld memory
recall of a specific image or detail in a rare vivid significant event
not recalled better but more confident in accuracy
what is the problem with reconstructing memories?
memories aren't stored in 1 place
not played back
can be changed
what did Loftus do to distort eyewitness testimony?
change memory by changing wording to questions about a car crash
used smash, collide, bump, hit, contact
he also implanted fasle memories
How must police approach lineups now?
can't show witness a book of possible witness before line( confuse ppl in book with criminal)
no longer show 10 ppl at 1 time but 1 at a time
must be made up of same gender n race
Why cant' the ask leading questions?
implant fasle memories in witnesses
what factors affect witness accurracy
stress weapon focus
exposure time accuracy confidence
cross racial- define own race better
event info- get after event
color perception- night day
unconscious transference- identify from book not crime
intoxication
attitudes n expectations
are traumatic events repressed?
no they are rarely forgotten
questionable methods are used if they are
What causes forgetting?
encoding failure- never was encoding
decay-if u dont use it u lose it
interference- new info interfers with old info
how do u improve memory?
overlearn
used spaced study- no cramming
What are the types of mnemonics?
rhyme
loci- link info to a specific placfe
peg word- put info to something u already know
What causes forgetting?
encoding failure- never was encoding
decay-if u dont use it u lose it
interference- new info interfers with old info
how do u improve memory?
overlearn
used spaced study- no cramming
What are the types of mnemonics?
rhyme
loci- link info to a specific placfe
peg word- put info to something u already know