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155 Cards in this Set

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The dominant trend of government in Renaissance city-states in Italy was from?:
republicanism to despotism
Which location had the greatest influence on shaping the values of the Italian Renaissance?:
the townhouse of an Italian merchant.
The literary masterpiece that satirized the ideals of knighthood and chivalry was written by?:
Cervantes.
Renaissance courtiers were?:
people who served a prince in multiple political and administrative ways.
"Art and sciences are not cast in a mold, but are perfected by degrees, by often handling and polishing, as bears leisurely lick their cubs into form." (Michel de Montaigne, Works II. xii, 1533-1592)

This represents which concept of his time?
skepticism concerning known or revealed truth.
Mannerist art was characterized by?:
distorted human figures and unnatural lighting effects.
Pico della Mirandola's Oration on the Dignity of Man stated that?:
God gave humans free will so that they could choose to be earthly or spiritual creatures.
Italian Renaissance art can be most appropriately described as?:
NeoClassicism in which the traditional characteristics of harmony and symmetry were valued.
Parlement
Law court staffed by nobles that could register of refuse to register a king's edict.
when was slavery abolished in the british empire?
Abolished slavery in the British Empire, 1833
Repeal of Test Act (1828)
Allowed those who were not members of the Church of England to hold public office
Indemnity Bill (1867)
bill passed by German Reichstag that legitimated Bismark's unconstitutional collection of taxes to modernize army in 1863
The population losses caused by the black death & 100 Years’ War resulted in
the virtual dissapearance of serfdom in france
Pugachev (1726-1775)
Head of bloody peasant revolt in 1773 that convinced Catherine the Great to throw her support to the nobles and cease internal reforms
Risorgimento
Itailian derived and desire for unity
academic pursuits of the clergy were criticized in the 16th century, true or false?
false
New Religious order for women that emerged in the 16th century
Ursuline Order
Francis Deak (1803-1876)
Magyar, forced Franz Joseph to agree to Compromise of 1867 which created Dual Monarchy of Austria-Hungary
Roger Fenton
Battlefield photographer of the Crimean War
According to Laura Cereta, inferiority of woman was a consequence of their
own failure to live up to their potential
Luther & Zwingli disagreed on what?
Eucharist. Whereas Luther believed that the body and blood of Christ are really present in the bread and wine of this sacrament (a view often called consubstantiation by non-Lutherans), Zwingli thought the sacrament to be purely symbolic and memorial in character.
Luther believed that God's grace was sufficient for man's salvation thereby defining baptism simply as a sign of having received a divine guarantee of this grace, Zwingli taught that God's grace in addition to man's work was necessary for salvation thereby defining baptism as a covenant between God and man.
This medieval school of thought began losing its popularity during the Renaissance. For example, the clergy used to have intellectual discussions on subjects like how many saints could occupy the head of a pin.
Scholasticism
I am considered the first great painter of the Renaissance period.
Giotto Di Bondonne
He is known as the "father of modern skepticism." He stated that God was unknowable, and that people needed to realize that perfection was unattainable. He was also disturbed by some of the scientific discoveries of the time.
Michel de Montaigne
Ulrich Zwingli was responsible for the Protestant conversion of?:
Switzerland.
Carbonari
Italian secret societies calling for a unified Italy and republicanism after 1815
John Stuart Mill (1806-1873)
British philosopher who published On Liberty(1859), advocating indivdual rights against overnment intrusion, and The Subjection of Women (1869), on the cause of women's rights
Christopher Columbus
First European to sail to the West Indies, 1492
Ferdinand Lassalle (1825-1864)
Leader of the revisionist socialist, who hoped to achieve socialism through the ballot rather than the bullet. They agreed to work within the framework of the existing government
J.G. Fichte (1762-1814)
German writer who believed that the German spirit was nobler and purer than that of other peoples.
Ivan the Terrible (1533-1584)
earned his nickname for hs great acts of cruelty directed towards all those with whom he disagreed. He became the first ruler to assume the title Czar of all Russia
Factory Act
limited children's and adolescents workweek in textile factories
Rene Descarte (1596-1650)
deductive thinker whose famous saying cogito, ergo sum ("I think, therefore I am") challenged the notion of truth as being derived from tradition and Scriptures
Ivan the Great (1462-1505)
The Slavic Grand Duke of Moscow, he ended nearly 200 years of Mongol domination of his dukedom. From then on he worked at extending his territories, subduing his nobles and attaing absolute power
Jeremy Bentham (1748-1832)
British theorist and philosopher who proposed utilitarianism, the principle that governments should operate on basis of utility, or the greatest good for the greatest number
Hegelian Dialectic
The idea, accoring to G.W.F. Hegel (1770-1831), a German philosopher, that social change results from the conflict of opposite ideas. The thesis is confronted by antithesis, resulting in a synthesis, which then becomes a new thesis. The process is evolutionary. Marx turned Hegel "upside down" and made class conflict, not ideas, is the force driving history foward.
J.G. Herder (1774-1803)
Forerunner of the German Romantic movement who believed that each people shared a national character, or Volksgeist.
Baroque
The sensuous and dynamic style of art of the Counter Reformation.In the arts, Baroque is a period as well as the style that used exaggerated motion and clear, easily interpreted detail to produce drama, tension, exuberance, and grandeur in sculpture, painting, literature, dance, and music
Dialectial materialism
the idea, according Karl Marx, that change and developement in history results from the conflict between social classes. Economic forces impel human beings to behave in socially determined ways
Louis Blanc (1811-1882)
Wrote the Organization of Work (1840) which proposed the use of competition to eliminate competition. It was the step toward future socialist society. Advocated the principle, "from each according to his abilities, to each according to his needs."
Concordat of Bologna
The Concordat of Bologna (1516), marking a stage in the evolution of the Gallican Church,[1] was an agreement between King Francis I of France and Pope Leo X that Francis negotiated in the wake of his victory at Marignano in September 1515. It stated that the Pope could collect all the income that the Catholic Church made in France, while the King of France was confirmed in his right to tithe the clerics and to restrict their right of appeal to Rome.
Peninsular War (1808-1813)
Napoleon's long drawn-out war with Spain
Francis Bacon (1561-1626)
inductice thinker who stressed experimentation in arriving at truth
Casare Beccaria
On Crimes and Punishments (1764), which condemned torture and the death penalty and was a founding work in the field of criminology.
European kingdom that took the lead in overseas exploration was:
Portugal
Gustavus Adolphus
Swedish Lutheran who won victories for the German Prostestants in Thirty Years' War and lost his life in one of the battles
Burschenschaften
Politcaly active students around 1815, in the German states proposing unification and democratic principles
In the absense of the papacy during the Babylonian Captivity, rome was in a state of poverty. True or False.
True
Usury
the practice of lending money for interest
Hebert Spencer (1820-1903)
English philospher who argued that in the difficult economic struggle for existence, only the "fittest" would survive
Robert Owen (1771-1858
Utopian socialist who improved health and safety conditions in mills, increased workers wages and reduced hours. Dreamed of establishing socialist communities the most notable was New Harmony (1826) which failed
John Wycliffe and John Huss both appealed to the superiority of?:
the Bible.
Martin Luther believed that women should?:
rule the household.
Lollards:
Lollardy was the political and religious movement of the Lollards from the mid-14th century to the English Reformation. Lollardy evolved from the teachings of John Wyclif, a prominent theologian at the University of Oxford beginning in the 1350s. Its demands were primarily for reform of the Roman Catholic Church. It taught that piety was a requirement for a priest to be a "true" priest or to perform the sacraments, and that a pious layman had power to perform those same rites, believing that religious power and authority came through piety and not through the Church hierarchy. Similarly, Lollardy also emphasized the authority of the Scriptures over the authority of priests. It taught the concept of the "Church of the Saved", meaning that Christ's true Church was the community of the faithful, which overlapped with but was not the same as the official Church of Rome. It taught a form of predestination. It advocated apostolic poverty and taxation of Church properties. It also denied transubstantiation in favor of consubstantiation
Hussites
The Hussites comprised a Christian movement following the teachings of the reformer Jan Hus (circa 1369–1415), who was influenced by John Wyclif and became one of the forerunners of the Protestant Reformation. This predominantly religious movement was also propelled by social issues and strengthened the Czech national self-awareness
The Protestant Reformation encouraged the movement for popular education. True or False?
True
The printing press helped the Reformation succeed becaise it allowed the papacy to rapidly suppress Lutheranism. True or False?
False
Ferdinand and Isabella consolidated royal power in Spain by?:
obtaining from the papacy the right to make major ecclesiastical appointments in Spain.
I believed in iconoclasm and later died in the Battle of Kapel carrying a sword and a Bible.
Ulrich Zwingli
The Spanish empire's government in America was characterized by?:
the introduction of a manorial-like system, the encomienda.
Elizabeth I's major goal in foreign policy was to?:
avoid open warfare whenever possible and keep England strong and at peace.
After the United Provinces of the Netherlands won independence from Spain, their government could BEST be described as?:
a weak union of strong provinces.
After the long War of the Roses, I became the first Tudor monarch in 1485
King Henry VII
Between the 16c and 17c, peasants in Poland, Bohemia, Hungary, and Russia?:
were granted democratic control over village life.
Which of the following exerted the most influence on Italy in the eighteenth century?:
Austria
Created in 1563, they were regulations on how the church and state worked together in England. They were vague enough to accommodate most of the religious in England except Puritanism.
Thirty-nine Articles
Martin Luther advocated for which two sacraments?
Baptism and communion
What were the 3 characteristics of the Act of Uniformity by Queen Elizabeth I?
Church of England under state control. Doctrines approved by parliament and monarchy. All England required to belong to the Church of England.
Pope Paul III, The "Reformer Pope" accomplished what two important feats for the Roman Catholic Church?
Established Holy Office and the Council of Trent.
The Englishman, Edmund Burke, in regard to balance of power thought that:
All weak powers should be dominated to prevent an unbalance of power, such as in the case of Poland during the Partitions of Poland.
What did the Scientific Revolution do for the view of women?
challenged the idea that women were inferior to men.
Spinoza differed with all other philosophers of his day about the?:
divinity of the material universe.(Spinoza argued that God and Nature were two names for the same reality, namely the single substance (meaning "to stand beneath" rather than "matter") that underlies the universe and of which all lesser "entities" are actually modes or modifications, that all things are determined by Nature to exist and cause effects, and that the complex chain of cause and effect are only understood in part.)
Descartes' idea was that the world consists of two fundamental entities or substances, which we can call?:
the physical and the spiritual.
I defended Aristotle's theory of the earth being surrounded by numerous clear spheres.
Ptolemy
I developed the theory of two types of blood, one type that is bright red and the other that is dark red.
Galen
He rejected Galen's view on human blood in his work On the Fabric of the Human Body.
Vesalius
Descartes' belief that all existence was divided into the spiritual and material.
Cartesian Dualism
A philosophy developed by John Locke which states that all knowledge of matters of fact is based on, or derived from, experience.
Empiricism
This astronomer theorized that the moon and sun orbited the Earth and the remaining planets orbited the sun.
Tycho Brahe
I solved the question of how blood circulates by theorizing that the heart operates like a mechanical pump.
William Harvey
An Italian monk who concluded that the universe was infinite size and that the Earth, sun, and planets were all moving constantly within it.
Giordano Bruno
In Galileo's Dialogue on the Two Chief Systems of the World this philosophy was introduced which states that corresponding causes produce corresponding affects throughout the universe.
Doctrine of Uniformity
Proto-Industrialization refers to?:
the employment of laborers who worked at home but in a capitalist system dependent on urban merchants.
What was the nature of trade between eastern and western Europe in the 17c ad early 18c?:
western Europe imported grain in increasing amounts from eastern Europe in return for art objects and manufactured goods.
David Hume argued that human beings?:
did not have any certain knowlede at birth.
For Rousseau, what was the main source of inequality and the chief cause of crime?:
private property
The most important contribution Catherine the Great made early in her reign was the?:
establishment of a legislative commission to review the laws of Russia.
Many 18c philosophes believed that governmental reform would be accomplished by?:
benevolent absolutist monarchs.
His graphic works portrayed the everyday life in London. His most famous sketch "Gin Lane" portrayed the effects of alcohol on the poor in 18c England.
William Hogarth
They believed that the primary role of government was to protect the property and to permit its owners to use it freely. They particularly felt economic production depended on sound agriculture.
physiocrats
I based my writing on the belief that human nature, which was originally good was corrupted by society.
Rousseau
Influenced by Montesquieu's "Spirit of Laws" this 18c ruler established the Charter of Nobility of 1785 which gave nobility security of their property, the right to hold serfs and the immunity from arrest.
Catherine the Great
The European lower classes reacted to the Enlightenment by?:
seeking comfort in grass-roots religious revival movements.
Describe the attitude toward children in the first part of the 18c.:
they were ignored, often brutalized, and often unloved.
Who were the first to initiate a political campaign to abolish slavery?:
Quakers and Baptists.

(The Religious Society of Friends (commonly known as Quakers) was founded in England in the 17th century as a Christian religious denomination by people who were dissatisfied with the existing denominations and sects of Christianity. Traditionally George Fox has been credited as the founder or the most important early figure. The Society of Friends is counted among the historic peace churches.)
European efforts to deal with crime after 1700 consisted of what?:
employed public displays of punishment for the purpose of deterrence.
During the Reign of Terror, the Committee of Public Safety sought to establish a separation between state and religion. True or False?
False
The new Republican calendar of 1793 was part of an effort at dechristianization. True or False?:
True
For the French peasants, the Revolution of 1789 meant?:
greater landownership.
Written in the midst of the French Revolution, the 1793 Constitution?:
reflected the vision of Rousseau's social contract.
The political views of the Girondists were?:
more moderate than the view of other Jacobins.
The purpose of the August 4th Laws.
to abolish slavery
I responded to a warning to curb my spending in light of the poverty of the peasants of France with the phrase: "Let them eat cake!"
Marie Antoinette
This piece of legislation made those who pledged swear allegiance to the state above all other political, religious, or social obligations.
Civil Constitution of the Clergy
Under the Napoleonic Code, workers received?:
no specific rights or guarantees.
Napoleon joined the Jacobins shortly after the French Revolution. True or False?
True
After the French Revolution and the Napoleonic era, France?:
was divided into departments rather than provinces.
A series of laws to help supervise the rights of other religions in France besides Catholicism.
Organic Articles
The conclusions of Malthus and Ricardo relative to economic affairs suggested that?:
liberals were right to reject government interference in economic affairs because it could do no good.
In England, the Factory Act of 1833 clearly?:
forbade work for girls under 18 years of age.
This limited labor by young children in Britain to an eight hour work day.
The 1833 Factory Act
These forbid the formation of trade unions and worker's strikes in Britain. They were repealed by Parliament in 1824.
The Combination Acts
In France, this monarhcy encouraged business interests, kept taxes low, and sometimes maintained high tariffs that protected special interests, therefore not following the trend of laissez faire government.
The July Monarchy
Also known as domestic industry, this was the system in which merchant-manufacturers sought labor in the counrty side to produce goods. This was partially done to compete with the guilds.
The putting-out system
All of the following are true of the Romantic movement in the early 19c EXCEPT?:

A) it sympathized with revolts against oppression.
B) it placed great emphasis upon the individual.
C) it called for social reform.
D) it instilled a reverence for nature.
E) it accepted the basic ideals of the Enlightenment philosophes.
E) it accepted the basic ideals of the Enlightenment philosophes.
Generally, the revolutions of 1848 resulted in?:
the end of the age of romantic revolution.
The Protocol of Troppau?:
permitted stable governments' intervention into countries experiencing revolution for the purpose of restoring order.
Repressive legislature passed in response to the revolutionary stirrings in 19c Europe that banned demonstrations, suspended the writ of habeas corpus and restricted the press.
Six Acts
Passed by Louis XVIII, it recognized equality before the law, accepted the Napoleanic Code, granted freedom of the press and established The Chamber of Deputies and The Chamber of Peers.
Charter of 1814
I made the close connection between the development of German nationalism and the reverence for a strong state that characterized some German liberal thought.
George Hegel
The disestablishment of the Church of Ireland and the passage of laws to protect the Irish tenant farmer occurred during the first ministry of?:
William Gladstone.
This person emerged as the leader of Hungarian liberals and saw Hungary's partnership with Austria as an obsatcle to liberal reform.
Kossuth
As a result of this treaty, Austria was eliminated as a dominant threat to the German states; the German Confederation was dissloved.
Treaty of Prague
The "demographic transition" that took place between 1870 and 1914 involved?:
a huge migration of Europeans to the United States, South America, and Australia
Nietzsche's criticism of Christianity was aimed primarily at?:
Christian morality, which he believed was repressive and fit only for slaves.
The positivists believed that?:
general rules of social behavior can be derived from the examination of empirical data.
What view of Fabian socialists differed from orthodox Marxism?:
democracy could lead to socialism, revolution was not necessary.
This English philosopher was a forceful proponent in the fight for government intervention in social reform.
John Stuart Mill

(John Stuart Mill (20th May 1806 – 8th May 1873), was a British philosopher, political economist and Member of Parliament, was an influential liberal thinker of the 19th century. He was an advocate of utilitarianism, the ethical theory that was systemized by his godfather, Jeremy Bentham, but adapted to German romanticism.)
This scientist reasoned that society could be studied in a scientific manner. His positivism helped students of society understand the laws of social development
Auguste Comte
The necessity of having a nation-state and the superiority of the German Volkgeist were all part of this nationalists views.
Johann Fichte
Great Britain exported opium to China in order to?:
find a means of paying for imports from China.
In arguing for the positive effects of her imperialist rule in India, Britain could point to all of the following EXCEPT?:

A) a competant civil service which generally served well in India.
B) an increase in education including instruction in English.
C) eradication of discrimination based on caste.
D) development of the Indian infrastructure.
E) control of hostilities among diverse Indian religious groups.
C) eradication of discrimination based on caste.
Which of the following is the BEST reason for the beginnings of late 19c imperialism?:

A) the need to develop manufacturing in non-industrialized nations.
B) the global competition of European nations for claims to less developed areas.
C) missionary activities to proselytize and convert the heathens.
D) the acquisition of territories promising strategic benefit.
E) national security and the need for an international balance of power.
E) national security and the need for an international balance of power.
A unique feature of the "new imperialism" was the?:
establishment of direct political control over colonies through elaborate imperial bureaucracies.
This battle took place in France from July to November 1916 during which a million casualties were sustained by both sides.
Battle of the Somme
The mandate system, created by the League of Nations, was a form of colonialism where the colonial rulers were?:
accountable for the well-being of the inhabitants with the ultimate goal of teaching them how to rule themselves.
What statement can be used to described the internal economies of the European colonies?:
colonial economies were steadily reduced to dependence on the European-dominated global market.
As public morale weakened in the later stages of the war?:
police powers were expanded to include the arrest of dissenters as traitors.
The most visible effect of World War I on European working habits was?:
an end to unemployment.
The British won a major propaganda victory at the start of the First World War because of?:
German atrocities in Belgium.
This event took place between France and Germany from February to December 1916 which resulted in nearly 700,000 casualties.
Battle of Verdun
The social group that was hit most severely by Germany's inflation in the 1920s was the?:
middle class.
France in the 1920s and 1930s?:
experienced a time of political discord and military conservatism.
Under this 1928 agreement the major powers of Europe renounced war as an instrument of national policy.
Kellogg-Briand Pact
Poland was the first country to become a dictatorship, after World War I, with this man as its leader.
Joseph Pilsudski
A pledge between Roosevelt, Churchill, and Stalin which guaranteed that after the end of the war Germany would be occupied by Allied powers and demilitarized.
Teheran Conference
Refers to General Erwin Rommel who attacked the lifeline of Britain, the Suez Canal.
The Desert Fox
The Nazis consolidated power by following this policy which builds economic self-sufficiency, by allowing a country to strive independent of imports and foreign markets.
Autarky
The North Atlantic Treaty Organization was formed in response to?:
the events surrounding the Berlin Blockade.
The "Prague Spring" refers to?:
the unsuccessful liberalization program attempted by Alexander Dubcek.
The Solidarity movement in Poland, which ultimately toppled the communist regime, was helped by what other Polish institution?:
the Catholic Church.
This American policy focused on strengthening the US and its allies in order to discourage Soviet aggression.
Deterrence
I was imprisoned during Stalin's reign and emerged in 1956 to head the Polish government.
Gomulka
This meeting between President Eisenhower, the Prime Ministers of Britain and France, and the Soviets, led to a slightly more agreeable atmosphere between nations. This formally divided Vietnam into the Communist North and Non-Communist South.
Geneva Summit
In mid-1991, war broke out in the former Yugoslavia when?:
Serb armed forces carved out enclaves for Serb minorities in the republics of the former Yugoslavia.