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77 Cards in this Set

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Major roles in bringing about changes in nursing
Florence Nightingale and Mary Seacole
1751
Penn Hospital/ first in America
1851
Florence Nightingale attends Kaisersvwerth to train as a nurse
1872
another school of nursing opens in U.S., the new england hospital for women and children
1879
Mary Mahoney, first trained African-American nurse
1882
American Red cross established by Clara Barton
1893
Lillian Wald and Mary Brewster establish Henry Street Visiting Nurse Service in New York.
1902
School nursing is established by Linda Rogers in New York, NY
1925
Mary Breckenridge/the frontier nursing service
1935
The social security act is passed
1943
An ammemdment to the nurse training bill is passed that bars racial bias
1967
warren hatcher/ first black male nurse to earn a doctoral degree
1975
publishes "Patient's Bill of Rights"
1982
nurse licensure examination changes to a comprehensive test developed by the National Council of State Boards of Nursing.
2002
address the shortage of nurses, adopts the Nurse Reinvestment Act; Pres. George W. Bush
2003
medicare prescribtion drug bill
2004
National council of state boards of nursing raises the passing standard NCLEX-RN
Prehistoric period
health practices were guided by beliefs of magic, religion, and superstition.
Egypt
sutures in repairing wounds,
pharmacopia w/700 drugs,
midwives
Palestine
Hebrew priest took the role of health inspectors,
Mosaic code/organized methods of disease control
Greece
Hipprocrates/father of medicine,
scientific methods to solve probs.
India
sacred book of Brahmanism, vedas,guide to health care practice.
major and minor surgeries.
public hospitals staffed by male nurses. older women allowed to assume nursing roles.
China
confusius taught moral philosophy.
ying and yang/ yin-fem/neg /yan-male/pos.
acupunture. drugs/ephedrine
Rome
adapted medical practices from the countries they conquered. males and females cared for the sick.
Greek physician expanded knowledge in anatomy, physiology, pathology
Middle ages
barbers performed medical treatments that were considered bloody.
Monks and christian knights provided nursing care and defended hospital during wars wearing armor.
Renaissance
religious facilities that provided healthcare closed. female prisoners, prostitutes, and drunks did the healthcare. Dark Ages
Sister of charity, gave time, money, and service to the poor and sick
Colonial Period
first hospital and first medical school founded in Mexico.
Procedures/purgatives and bleeding.
Benjamin Franklin/the penn hospital built in the U.S. 1751
Florence Nightingale
(1820-1910) born in Italy
wealthy, well traveled, and educated. 1851 allowed to train as nurse in Germany. 1854 trained nurses in london
Nightingale/ school
attended a 3 month program at Deaconesses at Kaiserswerth, Germany

established the first nursing school in England
Nightingale/ Crimean War
turning point in her career. Assembled 38 nurses. Worked long hours to care for the soldiers.
Nightingale/ documented
credited with using public health principles and stats to advocate for improved health conditions. 42% to 2% death rate decrease.
Nightingale/ one of her greatest achievements
overthrow the British management method that allowed deplorable conditions for soldiers.
Florence Nightingale/ Honored
death in Aug 1910 is honored as the founder of professional nursing
Mary Seacole
Jamaican Nurse
Nickname "Doctress"
requested to join Nightingale's group of nurses and was turned down because she was black.
Seacole/supplies
purchased her own supplies and opened a lodging house.
Seacole/war effort
remained faithful throught the Crimean War. long after war was honored w/medal in recognition of her efforts.
Civil war period/ In the U.S.
(1861-1865) men and women volunteered. hospitals set up in the field.
Dorothea Lynde Dix appointed to set up military hospitals and med. supplies to soldiers. No salary or status
Civil war period/ U.S. african american nurses
181 african american nurses.
3 made particular important contributions.
Harriet Tubman, Sojourner Truth, and Susie King Taylor.
Civil War/ Clara Barton
served in the front line. credited with founding the Americand Red Cross
First Nursing Textbook
A Manuel of Nursing 1876
1890's
establishment of african american hospitals gained momentum
African Americans/Civil War
established their own healtcare and nursing profession
1900's
required nurses become registered before entering practice.
Lillian Wald/1900's public health
pioneer in public health nurses. Henry Street Settlement House.
Occupational health/disease among workers.
Lillian Wald/1900's fees
billed according to their income "sliding scale fee"
WWI 1920's
1922 Insulin discovered
1928 Alexander Fleming Pencillin precusor
WWII Clara Barton
American Red Cross assisted in efforts to cont. public health in rural areas and moved into urban areas.
WWII 1921
Sheppard Towner Act/government provides funds to assist in care of special populations. care for Women, infants, and children.
WWII 1925
Frontier Nursing Services
Mary Breckenridge. Kentucky
Great Depression (1930-1940)
nurses unemployed because people could not afford.
1935 (Great Depression)
social security act
public health nursing major source of health care.
Hospital job opportunities
WWII (1940-1945)
unemployment rate dropped.
1965
medicaid acts
Social Security Act
main purpose to provide;
old age insurance sytem, federals grants for women and child welfare, vocational rehab. handicapped, medical care for crippled children and blind, strengthen public health, federal state unemployment.
WWII(1940-1945)
government provides funds to expand nursing education.
nurses attained the ranks of officers in army and navy.
Colonely Julie O. Flikke
first army nurse to be promoted to colonel in the U.S. Army
post WWII (1945-1950)
unemployed rate dropped.
women encouraged to return home.
two decades after WWII saw the emergence
post WWII (1945-1950)
1943
Nurse Training Act
support nurse training
post WWII (1945-1950)
1946
Hill-Burton Act
or Hospital Survey and Construction Act
largest commitment of federal dollars to health care in history.
Hill Burton Act
funding to construct hospitals and to assist states in planning for other health care facilities based on needs.
Hill Burton Act/ nurses
led to an increased demand for professional nurses to provide cqare in hospitals.
1960's
1963 Community Mental health centers act/funds for community outpatient mental health centers
1965
Medicare and Medicaid Acts
Medicaid quickly became the largest public asssistance program in the nation.
1945
nursing education was established by the National Nursing Accrediting service. Test Pool 25 states adopted in 1945. all state boards in 1950 used Test Pool
1960's Medicaid
health departments employed public health nurses. family planning, well child, immunizations, prenatal care.
Medicare 1965
provided hospital ins. for age 65 or older, disabled.
medicare reimbursement increased numbers of nurses.
Medicare reimbursement
home health movement. home bond status, skilled nursing care, medically and necessary treatment.
1970's
nurses focus providing care to pts. but also enhancing benifits of profession.
providing health care to communities and were instrumented in developing hospice, birthing, day care for elderly.
1974
National Institute of Mental Health project to permit minority nurses- earn PhD's.
1980's
homelessness became a common problem in large cities.
AIDS
reimbursement in DRG system
1980's physician
specializations in nephrology, cardiology, endocrinology, orthopedics, neurosurgery, cardiovascular surgery, and advanced practices.
outpatient surgery services services blossomed.
1990's
nurses selected jobs in which they could work hours in fewer days for more money.
1990's Healthy People
1991 healthy people 2000 initiative
effort to help states, cities, and communties identify health promotion and disease prevention strategies
Twenty-First Century
nursing shortage. nurses identified areas of concern, including insufficient staffing, inadequate salaries, effects of stress and overwork, lack of participation in decision-making, and dissatisfaction with the quality of their own nursing care.
nursing shortage
changing duties, responsibilities. public concerns over pt safety and quality of care characterize present-day practice.
1990's
massive downsizing of hospital nursing staff occurred, increased use of unlicensed assistive personnel to provide care in hospitals.
Twenty First century
nurse reinvestment act/ provide funds for nursing education, recruitment, and retention programs. George Bush signed for Bill into law Aug 2002