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72 Cards in this Set

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The explanation of what is life
uses external energy to grow and repair itself, responds to external stimuli, capable of reproduction. are exceptions
complexity
number of different parts organized in a whole
The explanation of what is life
uses external energy to grow and repair itself, responds to external stimuli, capable of reproduction. are exceptions
order of complexity
ranking or hierarchy of complext things in order of the number of separate parts they have
complexity
number of different parts organized in a whole
complex ecosystems
living systems of matter recycling and energy flowing through
order of complexity
ranking or hierarchy of complext things in order of the number of separate parts they have
chemical reactions within constituent
specific chemical reactions characterize specific life forms but there are many chemical reactions common to almost all life
complex ecosystems
living systems of matter recycling and energy flowing through
life requires water
water is the essential medium of all cells due to its great ability as a solvent
chemical reactions within constituent
specific chemical reactions characterize specific life forms but there are many chemical reactions common to almost all life
growth and devlopment
organism change in form and function at progressive stages in their lives
life requires water
water is the essential medium of all cells due to its great ability as a solvent
regulation
regulation of energy use and response to enviromental stimuli
growth and devlopment
organism change in form and function at progressive stages in their lives
DNA
a shared genetic code that is passed down from parent to offspring. DNA is inherited; it controls the chemical reactions in cells that are specific to each species.
regulation
regulation of energy use and response to enviromental stimuli
relation to a common ancestor
all life on earth has a common ancestor from which all the DNA genetic code of life originated
DNA
a shared genetic code that is passed down from parent to offspring. DNA is inherited; it controls the chemical reactions in cells that are specific to each species.
taxonomy
the science of catologing living thins, describing them, and giving them names; helps us fit known and newly found organisms into a framework of classification
relation to a common ancestor
all life on earth has a common ancestor from which all the DNA genetic code of life originated
aristotle
philosopher; first known person to work in and write about taxonomy.
taxonomy
the science of catologing living thins, describing them, and giving them names; helps us fit known and newly found organisms into a framework of classification
Linneas
naturalist who was known for keen powers of observation about shared and non shared characteristics of various organisms; original author of linnean classification of shared characteristics.
aristotle
philosopher; first known person to work in and write about taxonomy.
Linneaus
naturalist who was known for keen powers of observation about shared and non shared characteristics of various organisms; original author of linnean classification of shared characteristics.
Linnean hierarchy
Kingdom - Phylum - Class - Order - Family - Genus - Species
Species
basic unit of Linnean classification; a group of closely related organisms that can interbreed an produce viable offspring
binomial nomenclature
use of italicized genus and species names (genus is capitalized, species is not)
Monera
Kingdom of microscopic, single-celled organisms w/o a cell nucleus (most primitive living things)
Protista
Kingdom of microscopic, mainly single-celled organisms with a cell nucleus
Fungi
Kingdom of mulicellular organisms that get their energy and nutrients by absorbing material from the environment
Plantae
Kingdom of multicellular organisms that get their energy directly from the SUn via photosynthesis
Anamalia
Kingdom of multicellular organisms that get their energy and nutrients by consuming other organisms
Proposed New Three-Kingdoms
1. Archaea - newly discovered, single-celled organisms form extreme environments
2. Bacteria - single-celled organisms with no cell nuclei
3. Eucarya - all other life, single- and multi-celled that have cell nuclei
How many species are on Earth
Known and named: 1,413,000
Estimated: 3-30 million
Life strategies of single-celled organisms
1. Maintain and regulate hundreds of chemical reactions and processes that go on constantly w/in the cell
2. Through cell walls, absorb from its environment all matter and energy needed for survival
Autotrophs
more complex single cells that manufacture essential materials from water, carbon dioxide and ammonia, thus keeping itself alive
Heterotrophs
simple single cells that must consume a variety of molecules including amino acids, lipids, and carbohydrated
multicellular life
organizations of cells working together; this is the orgin of organs and organ systems in very complex multicellular organisms (specification of cells)
life strategy of fungi
multicellular strategy: send out the filaments

reproductive straegy: filaments can break off and grow, can produce spores
filaments
long linear chains of cells that bring nutrients into organism; end of filament absorbs the food directly
Life strategies of plants
they take energy from the Sun and lock it up in the form of chemical energy in their tissues and cells
Algae
single and multiple celled plants that carry out 50 to 90% of Earth's photosynthetic activity
Blue-green algae
cyannobacteria classified as Monera
Green algae
single and multicelled organisms, plus some multicelled plants; singlecelled classififed as Protista
Red algae
single and multi-celled organisms that grow upon other organisms (like corals); single-celled classified as Protista
Brown algae
multicellular plants like seaweeds and kelp
Types of plants
1) simple plants - Phylum Bryophyta
2) complex (vascular) plants
Bryophytes
- no roots
- absorb water directly w/ above ground structures
- grow in moist areas
- reproduce sexually & asexually (spores)
Complex (vascular) plants
- Have internal plumbing system ot move water (roots, stems and leaves)
- Have was of controlling water loss and protecting reproductive cells
- Have internal structure to allow plant to grow upright
Ferns
vascular plants requiring water to bring reproductive cells together to form spore-like bodies
Gymnosperms
plants that produce seeds w/o flowers; produce pollen (conifers, evergreens)
Seed
a reproductive body containing a fertilized plant egg cell wrapped in a nutritional layer and havign a protective coating
Pollen
male reproductive cells cast out by plants, some of which land on conifer cones containing female cells
Angiosperms
plants that produce seeds and flowers
Flowers
sites for reproductive cells to join, which are attractive to flying insects; fruit or seeds develop from the fertilized flower
Life Strategies of Animals
- Most consume molecules produced by other life forms
- Reproduce sexually
- Lungs or gills to extract oxygen fomr air (exhale carbon-dioxide)
Invertebrates
- animal plankton (small multi-celled aquatic life of lakes and oceans)
- annelids (worms)
- mollusks (clams, snails)
- sponges
- corals
- jellyfish
- arthropods (spiders, insects)
Phylum Arthropoda
the most successful phylum in the animal kingdom by number of species, diversity and biomass
Class Arachnida (spiders)
a diverse group with 8 legs and 3 body segments
Class Insecta (insects)
the largest and most diverse class of arthropods; comprises 70% of all known animal species; 6 legs and 3 body segments
- Hard exoskeletons
- Unique sensory organs (antennae)
- Hemacoele
- Trachea
Class Crustacea
have exoskeletons, segmented bodies, and jointed limbs; a circulatory system, muscles and an advanced nervous system
(crabs, shrimp, lobsters, crawfish, etc)
Vertebrates
- have spinal cords encased by a hollow backbone
- show transition from water to land
- reproductive cells join in water to form eggs
jawless fish (lampreys)
water moves through the body to filter nutrients; gills extract oxygen from the water
jawed fish (sharks, ray, bony fish)
catch prey with jaws and eat it; gills obtain oxygen from water
boney fish
salmon, prech, trout, lungfish
-can breath with lungs in air as well as with gills in water; can live out of water briefly
amphibians
land-living vertebrates spend part of their life cycle in water and part on land; require water to reproduce
(frogs, toads, salamanders)
characteristics of amphibians
- 3 chambered heart(blood to lungs, back to heart and then to body)
- well developed circulatory system
- lungs collect oxygen as well as through skin
characteristics of reptiles
- covered in hard scales
- eggs fertilize w/in female body
- 3 chambered heart
- cold blooded (recieves heat energy through skin to maintain body temp)
characteristics of birds
- feathers (maintain body heat)
- ability of flight
- divided heart (one side sends blood to lungs; other to body)
- warm blooded
characteristics of mammals
- burn food to maintain body temp
- fertilize egg grows inside female
- hair (temp reg)
- teeth enamel
- legs under body
- larger brain size
- land dwelling
- dominant predator/carnivore of terrestrial food chain