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12 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Entropy
a measure of a system’s disorder
Flow of Energy
Organisms maintain order by being resupplied with energy
The sun is life’s primary energy source
Energy flows in one direction from more usuable to less usable forms
Heat is the least usuable form of energy
Activation Energy
Minimum amount of energy required to start a reaction; enzyme action lowers this energy barrier.
Feedback Inhibition
Of cells, an activity causes a change in cellular conditions, and that change in turn causes the activity to slow down or stop.
Enzyme
A type of protein (or, rarely, RNA) that accelerates a chemical reaction
Diffusion
The net movement of a substance down a concentration gradient
Passive Transport
Flow of solutes through transport proteins down gradient
Does not require any energy input
Active Transport
Movement of solutes up gradient
Transport protein must be activated
Uses ATP energy
Helps maintain membrane gradients (Ca+, Na+, K+) that are essential for:
Muscle contraction
Neuron function
Osmosis
Diffusion of water between two regions separated by a selectively permeable membrane.
Hypertonic
having more solutes (low water conc.)
Isotonic
having the same amount of solutes (same water conc.)
Hypotonic
having fewer solutes (high water conc.)