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15 Cards in this Set

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Proton
Positively charged subatomic particle found in an atom’s nucleus.
Neutron
Subatomic particle found in an atom’s nucleus; has mass but no charge.
Electron
Negatively charged unit of matter, with particle-like and wavelike properties; occupies an orbital around atomic nucleus.
Atomic Number
The number of protons in the nucleus of an atom; identifies an element.
Mass Number
The sum of all protons and neutrons in an atom’s nucleus.
Isotopes
Two or more forms of an element’s atoms differing in the number of neutrons.
Radioisotopes
Isotope with an unstable nucleus (too many or too few neutrons).
Ion
An atom with a positive or negative charge. Ions form when an atom gains or loses electrons
Ionic Bonding
Interaction between ions held together by attraction of opposite charges
Covalent Bond
Sharing of one or more electrons between two atoms
Polar/Nonpolar
One atom has a stronger pull on electrons so the molecules has a positive and negative poles/electrons shared equally, no poles
Hydrogen Bonding
An intermolecular interaction between a covalently bonded hydrogen atom and a different atom bearing a negative charge (e.g., oxygen, fluorine, or nitrogen).
Properties of Water
no net charge, but has a positive (H) and negative (O) end.
Attracts other polar molecules such as sugars and salts (hydrophilic)
Repels oil and other nonpolar molecules (hydrophobic)
Hydrophilic/phobic interactions important for the formation of cell membranes;temperature stabilizing;Compared with other fluids,it can absorb a lot of heat energy before increasing in temperature. (High specific heat)
Acid/Base
Any dissolved substance that donates H+ to other solutes or to water molecules/Any substance that accepts hydrogen ions (H+) when dissolved in water, thus forming hydroxyl ions (OH– ). Also, the nitrogencontaining component of a nucleic acid.
pH
A measure of the H+ concentration (acidity) of blood, water, and other solutions. pH 7 is neutral.