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86 Cards in this Set

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What is an ethical principle stating that one should do good and prevent or avoid doing harm?
What is the study of ethical problems resulting from scientific advances?
What is a set of statements encompassing rules that apply to people in professional roles?
Code of Ethics
What is an ethical theory stating that moral rule is binding?
What is science or study of moral values?
What is an ethical principle stating the duty not to inflict harm?
What is an ethical theory stating that the best decision is one that brings about the greater good for the most people?
What is ideas of life, customs, and ways of behaving that society regards as desirable?
What is the ethical duty to tell the truth?
What is a system of principles concerning the actions of the nurse in his or her relatinships with patients, patients' family members, other health care provides, policy makers, and society as a whole?
nursing ethics
A ____ code of ethics was first introduced in the late nineteenth century and has evolved through the years as the profession itself has evolved and as changes in society and health have come about.
_____ ethics is part of a broader system known as bioethics.
_____ is an interdisciplinary field within the health care organization that has developed only in the past three decades. It is a response to contemporary advances in health care.
A ____ is a personal belief about worth that acts as a standard to guide behavior.
A ____ system is an entire framework on which actions are based.
Who is a well-known nurse ethicist that describes values as being a basis for what a person thinks about, chooses, feels for, and acts on?
Diance Uustal
A clear understanding of what is right and wrong is a necessary first step to a process sometimes referred to as ____ _____, a process by which people attempt to examine the values they hold and how each of those values functions as a part of a whole.
values clarification
Forming a world view and a value system is an evolving, continuous, dynamic process that moves along a continuum of development often referred to as ____ development.
A person who is in the ________ level has no concept of the underlying moral code informing the decision of good-bad or right-wrong.
A morally mature individual (________ level), one of the few to reach moral completeness, is an autonomous thinker who strives for a moral code beyond issues of authority and reverence. Their actions are based on principles of justice and respect for the dignity of all humankind and not just on principles of responsibility, duty, or self-edification.
what value is concern for the welfare of others, caring, commitment, compassion, generosity, perserverance
what value is having the same rights, privileges, or status. Acceptance, assertiveness, fairness, self-esteem, tolerance
what value is qualities of objects, events, and persons that provide satisfaction. appreciation creativity, imagination, sensity
what value is capacity to exercise choice. Confidence, hope, indepedence, opennes, self-direction, self discipline.
what value is inherent worth and uniqueness of a person? consideration, empathy, humaneness, kindness, respectfulness, trust
human dignity
what value is upholding moral and legal principles? Courage, integrity, morality, objectivity
what value is faithfulness to fact or reality? Accountabilit, authenticity, honesty, inquisitiveness, rationality, reflectiveness
_____ theory is a system of principles by which a person can determine what should and should not be done.
______ is an approach that is rooted in the assumption that an action or practice is right if it leads to the greatest possible balance of good consequences or to the least possible balance of bad consequences. An attempt is made to determine which actions will lead to the greatest ratio of benefit to harm for all person involved in the dilemma
_____ is an approach that is rooted in the assumptio that humans are rational and act out of principles that are consistent and objective and that compel them to do what is right. This theory claims that a decision is right only if it conforms to an overriding moral duty and wrong only if it violate that moral duty.
_____, the principle of respect for the person is sometimes labeled as the primary moral principle. The umbrella concept says that humans have incalculable worth or moral dignity fnot possessed by other objects or creatures. People are free to form their own judgements and whatever actions they choose. they are self-determining agents, entitled to determine their own destiny. Concepts of freedom and informed consent are grounded
In general, to be _____ is to promote goodness, kindness, and charity. To provide benefits to others by promoting their good.
______, a principle that implies a duty not to inflict harm. It is to abstain from injuring others and to help others further their own well-being by removing harm and eliminating threats.
What are freely chosen, enduring beliefs or attitudes about the worth of a person, object, idea, or action. They influence decisions and actions, including nurses' ethical decision making. not all are moral.
A ___ ___ is the small group fo values held by an individual.
value set
People organize their set of values internally along a continuum from most important to least important, forming a _____ system. These are basic to a way of life, give direction to life, and form the basis of behavior- especially behavior that is basede on decisions or choices.
value system
_____ or opinions are interpretations or conclusions that people accept as true. they are based more on faith than fact and may or may not be true. They do not necessarily involve values.
_____ are mental positions or feelings toward a person, object, or idea. They continue over time, whereas a belief may last only briefly. They are often judged as bad or good, positive or negative, whereas beliefs are judged as correct or incorrect.
____ are learned through observation and experience. as a result, they are heavily influenced by a person's sociocultural environment, that is, by societal traditions, by cultural, ethnic, and religious groups; and by family and peer groups.
Although people derive values from society and their individual subgroups, they internalize some or all of these values and perceive them as ___ values. People need societal values to feel accepted, and they need person values to have a sense of individuality.
What is a concern for the welfare and well being of others, In professional practice it is reflected by the nurse's concern for the welfare of patients, other nurses and other health care providers.
What is the right to self-determination. Professinal practice reflects this when the nurse respects patients' rights to made decisions about their health care.
What is acting in accordance with an appropriate code of ethics and accepted standards of practice. It is reflected in professional practice when the nurs eis hones and provides care based on an ethical framework that is accepted within the profession.
What is upholding moral, legal, and humanistic principles. This value is reflected in professional practice when the nurse works to ensure equal treatment under the law and equal access to quality health care.
social injustice
Values ___ is a process by which people identify, examine, and develop their own individual values. The principle of this is that on one set of values is right for everyone. It promoted personal growth by fostering awareness, empathy, and insight.
Choosing (_______) beliefs are chosen freely, without outside pressure, are chosen from among alternatives and are chosen after reflecting and considering consequences.
prizing (______) chosen beliefs are prized and cherished
Acting (_____) chosen beliefs are affirmed to others, incorporated into one's behavior, and repeated consistently in one's life.
Seven ways to help clients clarify their values are list alternatives, examine possible consequences of choices, choose freely, feel good about the choice, affirm the choice, act on the choice and act with a pattern.
no answer
____ refers to (a) a method of inquiry that helps people to understand the morality of human behavior (b) the practices or beliefs of a certain group and (c) the expected standards of moral behavior of a particular group as described in the group's formal code of professinal ethics.
What are ethics as applied to life (e.g. to decisions about abortion or euthanasia).
____ ethics refers to ethical issues that occur in nursing practice.
____ usually refers to private, personal standards of what is right and wrong in conduct, character, and attitude. Sometimes the first clue to the moral nature of a situation is an aroused conscience or an awareness of feelings such as guilt, hope, or shame. Another indicator is the tendency to respond to the situation iwth words usch as ought, should, right, wrong, good and bad
____ development is the process of learning to tell the difference between right and wrong and of learning what ought and ought not be done.
This persons moral development theory emphasizes rights and formal reasoning.
this persons moral development emphasizes care and responsibility, although it points out that people use the concepts of both theorists in their moral reasoning.
_________ (teleological) theories lood to the consequences of an action in judging whether that action is right or wrong.
consequence based
Utilitarianism, one form of consequentialist theory, views a good act as one that brings the most good and the least harm for the greatest number of people. This is called the principle of ____. This approach is often used in making decisions abou the funding and delivery of health care.
________ (deontological) theories emphasize individual rights, duties, and obligations. The morality of an action is determed not by its consequences but by whther it is done according t an impartial, objective principle.
______ (caring_ theories stres courage, generosity, commitment, and the need to nurture and maintain relationships. These theories judge actions according to a perspective of caring and responsibility.
relationships based
What based theory does this nurse use: Surgery will cause him more suffering; he probably will not survie it anyway; and the family may even feel guilty later?
consequenced based
What based theory does this nurse use: This violates the principle of autonomy This man has a right to decide what happens to his body.
principles based
What based theory does this nurse use: My relationship to this client commits me to protectinghim and meeting his needs; and I feel such compassion for him. I must try to help the family understand that he needs support
relationships based
_____ refers to the right to make one's own decision. Nurses who follow this principle recognize that each client is unique3, has the rigth to be what that person is, and has the right to choose personal goals.
____ autonomy is if they have the ability to make choices, and ____ autonomy is if their choices are not limited or imposed by others
____ means "doing good". Nurses are obligated to do good, that is, to implement actions that benefit clients and their support person.
___ is often referred to as fairness
___ means to be faithful to agreements and promises. By virtue of their standing as professional caregivers, nurses have responsiblities to clients, employers, government, and society as well as to themselves.
____ refers to telling the truth
____ means "answerable to oneself and others for one's own actions,"
____ refers to "the specific accountability or liability associated with the performance of duties of a particular role.
Organs for transplantation may come from living donors or from donors who have just died. many living people choose to become donors by giving consent under the _____ ______ ______ Act.
Uniform Anatomical Gift
What involves actions to directly bring abou the client's death, with or without client consent. an example of this would be the administration of a lethal mediation to end the client's suffering. It is forbidden by law and can result in criminal charges of murder.
active euthanasia
Active euthanasia includes assisted suicide, or giving clients the means to kill themselves if they request it . Some countries or states have laws permitting this for clients who are severly ill, near death, and who wish t commit suicide
assisted suicide
____ euthanasia involves the withdrawal of extraordinary means of life support, such as removing a ventilator or withholding special attempts to revive a client.
An ____ is one who expresses and defends the cause of another. A client ___ is an advocate for the clients rights.
Who theory is a cognitive developmental process, sequential with progression through levels and stages. Consist of preconventional, conventional, and post conventional.
Kohlbergs level
Good-bad: Right-wrong perspective
pre conventional
Kohlbergs level
Desire to be viewed as good, nice
Seeks approval , dutiful, respect for autority
Kohlbergs level
Autonomous thinker
Strives for a moral code
Actions based on principles of justice and respect for others
post conventional
This persons theory says women develop with a focus on connection to others and with an ethic of care rather than justice. Also consists of preconventional, conventional and postconventional
Gilligan level
Goal is individual survival
Transition from selfishness to responsibility to others
Gilligan level
Self sacrific is goodness
Transition from goodness to truth that she is a person too
gilligan level
principle of non violence: do not hurt others or self
post conventional
this is consequence based
A good act is one that brings the greatest good and least harm for the greatest number of people.
Right is based on achievement of outcome
Greatest good for the greatest number
Strongest approach in bioethical decision making
utiliatian or teleology
This is principle based
Morality of an action determed if done by impartial principle rather than the consequences
Universal principal of duty
moral obligation to do right
life to be safeguarded
persons are ends to themselves, never a means to an end