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34 Cards in this Set

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Dalton
Hypothesized that every element has atoms.
Molecule
Cluster of atoms that can be isolated
Electrolysis
"Splitting by electricity". Allowed rapid discovery of many elements.
Earth's Composition
Oxygen, Silicon, Magnesium, Iron, Aluminum, Calcium
Composition of Living Organisms
Hydrogen, Carbon, Nitrogen, Oxygen, Phosphorus, Sulfur
Star Composition
Hydrogen and Helium
Thompson
Identified the electron.
Rutherford
Experimented with gold foil. Proved the existence of the nucleus.
Rutherford's model of the atom
Positvely charged nucleus surrounded by orbiting cloud of negatively charged electrons.
Bohr
Said electrons exist in various levels located around the nucleus. "energy levels"
Ground state
When all electrons are in lower energy levels
Photon
a packet of electromagnetic radiation emitted when electrons drop to lower energy levels. Both a particle and a wave.
Spectrum
total collection of photons emitted by a given atom. Each atom has a unique spectrum.
Spectroscopy
Study of elemental composition using absorption lines.
Uses of spectroscopy
1. Study of stellar gasses and interstellar dust composition.
2. Chemical tests on unknown substances.
3. Study of soil and rock.
Atomic Number
Number of electrons in the shell.
Alkali Metals
First Column.
Alkali Earths
Second Column.
Noble Gasses
Eighth column.
Atomic interactions
When two atoms interact, their outermost shell electrons dictate their interactions and govern bonding properties.
Pauli Exclusion Principle
No two electrons can occupy the same energy state at the same time.
Valence Electrons
Electrons in the outer shell
Chemical bonding
Commonly involves exchange or sharing of valence electrons.
Valence
Number of electrons in outer shell. "Combining power" of atoms.
Quest of the atom
To achieve the lowest energy state it can
Chemical bonds
The result of redistribution of electrons that leads to a more stable configuration between two or more atoms
Ionic Bonds
Chemical bond which electrical force between two oppositely charged ions holds the atoms together. One atom gives up an electron and the other receives the electron.
Alloy
two or more metallic elements combined in a metallic bond.
Malleability
A property of metals that allows atoms to rearrange themselves. Can be bent shaped molded.
Metallic Bond
electrons are continually redistributed so they are shared by many atoms at one time.
Covalent Bonds
Molecules that share electrons. (diatomic gasses)
Organic Chemistry
Study of Carbon bonding and related bonding.
Polar molecules
Molecules with either a positive or negative side to them.
Hydrogen bonds
Weak electrical attraction developed by the H atom itself after it is bonded to another element like O or N.