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64 Cards in this Set

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5x86
A line of microprocessors produced by Advanced Micro Devices (AMD), which competes with Intel’s Pentium series of microprocessors. The 5x86 line has a clock speed of 133 MHz and is equal to the 75 MHz Pentium Chip
Address bus
A set of wires connecting the computers CPU and RAM across which memory addresses are transmitted. The number of wires determines the amount of memory that can be addressed at any one time
Advanced Micro Devices (AMD)
An early network developed by the Department of Defense to connect computers at universities and defense contractors. This network eventually becomes part of the internet
Arithmetic logic unit (ALU)
The component of the CPU that handles arithmetic and logic functions. Instructions are passed by memory to the ALU
∑ Arithmetic operation
o One of to types of operations a computer can perform which are handled by the ALU, these powers conclude +, -, /, *
∑ ASCII
o American standard code of information interchange
∑ Binary system
o A system of representing the two possible states on and off (0 and 1)
∑ Bit
o The smallest unit of data
∑ Burst extended data output (BEDO)
o A very fast type of RAM which is only supported by very few computers
∑ Bus
o The path between components of a computer or nodes of a network. The width of the bus determines the speed at which the data is transmitted
∑ Cache memory
o High-speed memory that resides between the CPU and Ram. Cache memory stores data and instructions that the CPU is likely to need next
∑ Control unit
o The component of the CPU that contains the instruction set, this control unit directs the flow of data through the computer system
∑ Cyrix
o One of several manufactures that make processor that mimic the functionality of Intel’s chip
∑ Decimal system
o The system that uses 10 digits to represent numbers
∑ Dual in Line Memory Module (DIMM)
Type of circuit board containing RAM chips
∑ EBCDIC (Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code)
o An 8 bit binary code developed by IBM to represent symbols and numeric and alphanumeric characters, commonly used today on most IBM mainframe computers
∑ EISA (Extended Industry Standard Architecture)
A pc bus standard created by a consortium of hardware developers that extends the 16-bit bus to 32 bits. EISA buses are capable of accessing 16 bit and 32 bit devices
∑ Extended Data Output (EDO)
o A type of RAM, which is faster than FPM and RAM and commonly found on the fastest computers
∑ Fast Page Mode (FPM)
o The oldest and least sophisticated type of RAM, still used today in many PC’s
∑ Flash Memory
o A type of nonvolatile memory like ROM which stores data even when the when the systems power is turned off. Flash memory is commonly found and used in digital cameras
∑ Floating Point Arithmetic
o A method used to speed up storage and calculation of numbers by reducing the number of decimal through the use of scientific notation. It is the function of the computers math coprocessor to perform such calculations
∑ Floating point unit (FPU)
o A computer chip that can be either separate from or part of the CPU ad is especially designed to handle complex mathematical operations; also called the floating point unit because it performs floating point calculations
∑ G3
o The current (as of printing) line of Apple computers
∑ Hertz
o The frequency of electrical vibrations per second
∑ Industry standard architecture (ISA) bus
o A PC bus standard developed by IBM, extending the bus to 16 bits. An ISA bus can access 8 bit and 16 bit devices
∑ Instruction set
o Machine language instructions that define all of the operations that the CPU can perform
∑ Intel
o The worlds leading manufacturer of microprocessors. Intel invented the first microprocessor which was used in electronic calculators
∑ K5
o A line of Pentium class processors made by AMD. These chips are available in 100 MHz and 116.7 MHz versions, which are equivalent to the Pentium 133 MHz and 166 MHz processors
∑ K6
o A line of Pentium class processors made by AMD, which supports MMX technology and comes in speeds of 166 MHz, 200 MHz, 233 MHz and higher
∑ Logical operation
o One of the two types of operations a computer can perform. Logical operations usually involve making a comparison, such as determining whether two values are equal
∑ Massively Parallel Processors (MPP)
o A processing architecture that uses hundreds to thousands of microprocessors in one computer to perform complex processes quickly
∑ Math coprocessor
o A computer chip that can be either separate from or part of the CPU and is especially designed to handle complex mathematical operations; also called the floating point unit
∑ Media GX
o A microprocessor made by Cyrix which integrates audio and graphics functions and is available in 120 MHz and 133 MHz versions
∑ Megahertz (MHz)
o Equivalent to millions of cycles per second; a common measure of clock speed
∑ Memory address
o A number used by the CPU to locate each piece of data in the memory
∑ Microcode
o Code that details the individual tasks the computer must perform to complete each instruction in the instruction set; a necessary level of translation between programs instructions and elementary circuit operations
∑ Micro Channel Architecture (MCA) bus
o A 32 bit PC bus standard developed by IBM; allows expansion boards to be configured by the software instead of manually
∑ MMX
o A microprocessor technology incorporated by Intel in the Pentium Pro, which increases the multimedia capabilities for a computer chip. MMX processors process audio, video, and graphical data more efficiently than the non MMX processors, enabling one instruction to perform the same function on multiple pieces of data, reducing the number of loops required to handle video, audio, animation, and graphical data
∑ Moore’s Law
o A commonly held and so far accurate axiom, which states that computing power doubles every 18 months
∑ Motorola
o A manufacturer of computer chips
∑ Nonvolatile
o The tendency for memory to retain data even when the computer is turned off
∑ Pentium
o An Intel processor using a 32 bit microprocessor and superscalar architecture
∑ Pentium II
o An Intel processor using a 32 bit microprocessor and capable of processing three program instructions in a single clock cycle
∑ Peripheral Component Interconnect (PCI) bus
o A PC bus standard developed by Intel that supplies high speed data path between the CPU and peripheral devices
∑ Power PC
o A microprocessor designed to run on both DOS and Macintosh based software
∑ Reduced instruction set computing (RISC) processor
o A microprocessor design that simplifies the instruction set using fewer instructions of constant size each of which can be executed in one machine cycle
∑ Registers
o High speed memory locations built directly to the ALU and used to half instructions and data that is currently being processed
∑ Single Edge Connector
A specialized motherboard slot, required by the Pentium II processor
∑ Single In-Line Memory Module (SIMM)
∑ One type of circuit board containing memory chips
Single Instruction Multiple Data (SIMD) process
ß Allows one instruction to perform the same function on multiple pieces of data, reducing the number of loops required to handle video audio, animation and other graphical data
∑ Superscalar
o A microprocessor architecture that allows more that one instruction to be performed in each clock cycle
∑ Swap in
o To load essential parts of a program into memory as required use
∑ Swap out
o To unload or remove nonessential parts of a program to make room for other
∑ Synchronous Dynamic RAM (SDRAM)
o A type of RAM that delivers bursts of data at very high speeds, (up to 100 MHz)
∑ System board
o Motherboard
∑ System clock
o The computers internal clock used to time processing operations. The clocks time intervals are based on constant unchanging vibrations of the quartz crystal
∑ Transistor
o Electronic switches within the CPU that exist in two states, conductive (ON) or nonconductive (OFF)
∑ Unicode Worldwide Character Standard
o A character set that provides 16 bits to represent each symbol
∑ Upward compatibility
o The capability of a hardware device or software product to interact successfully with all succeeding versions of software or hardware
∑ Virtual System Architecture (VSA)
o Processor technology created by CRYIX which combines memory, video card, and sound card in a single processor
∑ Virtual System Architecture (VSA)
Processor technology created by CRYIX which combines memory, video card, and sound card in a single processor
∑ Volatile
o The tendency for memory to loose data when the computer is turned off
∑ Word size
o The size of the registers in the CPU, which determines that amount of data, the computer can work with at any time.
∑ Xeon
newer version of Intel’s Pentium II processor