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60 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Analytical Engine
Babbage's dream machine
Babbage
Father of Computers
Difference Engine
automated mathematical tables accurate to 31 decimal places. Invented by Babbage
Hollerith
created a tabulating machine for the census
Jacquard Loom
the first example of "stored information". It was able to follow a pattern of punch cards
Pascal
invented a calculating machine to help his father who was a tax collector
Pascaline
Pascal's mechanical device that used gears and wheels to perform addition and subtraction
Second Generation
replaced vacuum tubes with transistors. Faster, smaller, more reliable
Tabulating Machine
electrical punch cards and clocks made the census take three months instead of ten years
Antanasoff-Berry Computer
technically the first digital computer (1939)
Colussus
1943: first fully electronic computer 5000 characters per second.
ENIAC
competes for the first digital computer title: 500 times
Harvard Mark I
1944: first automatic elctromechanical calculator
Computer generation
groups computers in terms of technology age
First Generation
used a lot of energy, were very large. (only used by big corporations or military)
Third Generation
1965-70: integrated circuits instead of transistors. Smaller
Fourth Generation
1970-1980: Large Scale Integration/Very Large Scale Integration. Increased power, reduced price and size
Fifth Generation
Current generation: parallel processing, artificial intelligence
Supercomputer
first s.c. Cray-1. Fastest type of computer used for massive amounts of math calculations
Mainframe
large and powerful: allow many people to be connected at once
Special Purpose Computers
Used to work on a specific and restrictive set of problems
Embedded Computers
type of special purpose computer built into a larger device: microwave or pop machine
clockspeed and word size
determines the speed of the processor. Clockspeed has one pulse per new step in processing. Word size is how many bits a processor can manipulate at one time
MegaHertz and GigaHertz
clockspeed is measured in these. This means either millions or billions of clock cycles per second
Arithmetic Logic Unit and Control Unit
These make up the CPU: ALU takes care of logic and arithmetic and CU send instructions to all parts of the computer
primary storage
memory on your computer that can be quickly retrieved.
secondary storage
disks, CD
RAM
primary storage. THe computers memory storage. Memory is erased when the computer is turned off (volatile)
operating system
in charge of all of the operations (starting the computer, communication, memory management)
GUI
graphical user interface. Uses icons to represent programs and files.
pixels
tiny colored dots organized in rows and columns
resolution
measures how many pixels it contains
bitmap
stored on a pixel by pixel basis
object-oriented
stores instructions about what is drawn instead of pixels. (shapes)
tweening
animators draw key frames and then are able to generate in between frames
database
stores large amounts of information in an organized fashion
SQL
Structured Query Language. Language that the computer can understand our queries
Telnet
allows users to log into remote computers
bandwidth
amount of information that can be transmitted in a given amount of time
Intranets
intra-organizational networks for email, file transfer for members of the organizations
HTTP Daemon
receives requests and sends out corresponding webpages to whomever requested it.
Synchronous communication
Instant messages, real time
Asynchronous communication
not real time: emails
Pseudocode
mixture of English and computer language
Sequence control structure
instructions are executed in a sequence
Selection Control Structure
If____ then___ else____
Repetition Control Structure
While____ is true do this
Binary language
a sequence of 1s and 0s that a machine can understand
Assembly Language
low-level programming one step above binary; uses short English-like codes
High-level programming
COBOL, FORTRAN, BASIC;easier for humans to understand, must be translated to Machine language
Interpreters
translate a program one line at a time
Compilers
translate an entire program at a time
Sniffer program
capture info as it travels through the internet
backdoors
anyone with knowledge of backdoor or password can access/modify info
cyber vandalism
replaces a website's content with their own
spoofing
pretend to be someone you're not
Accessibility
data delays and denials; makes the website seem down or slow
denial of service
try to make sure that requests never meet their destination
narrowcasting
newscasts customized to interests of different groups of people
pointcasting
personalized newscast for one individual