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49 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
syntax
structure or rules of a programming language
platform
refers to the computer hardware and the operating system
CPU
central processing unit, executes instructions of a program
memory unit
holds the instructions and data of a program while it is executing
hard disk
used to store programs and data so that they can be loaded into memory and accessed by the CPU
keyboard and mouse
used for input of data
monitor
display output of a program
types of processors or CPUs
Intel Pentium 4 Processor, Sun Microsystems SPARC, Hewlett-Packard HP-RISC processor, and the IBM PowerPC G5 processor. Don't forget AMD's line of processors.
Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU) aka Integer Unit (IU)
performs basic integer arithmetic and logical operations
Floating Point Unit (FPU)
performs floating point arithmetic
CPU instuctions
invokes arithmetic and logic operations, move data from one location to another, and change the flow of the program(which instruction to be executed next)
Instruction Pointer register (aka program counter)
keeps track of the current instruction being executed
pipelining (cpu terminolgy)
allows the CPU to process several instructions at once, so that while one instruction is executing, the process can decode the next instruction, and fetch the next instruction after that.
500 MHz
500 million instructions per second
2 GHZ
2 billion instructions per second
byte
eight binary digits or bits
bit
value is 0 or 1
KB, KBytes, Kilobytes
1000 bytes
MB, Mbytes, Megabytes
1 million bytes
GB, Gbytes, Gigabytes
1 billion bytes
DRAM - main memory RAM
Dynamic Random Access Memory technology, maintains data only when power is applied to the memory and needs to be refreshed regularly in order to retain data
L1 and L2 - SRAM
Static Random Access Memory - needs power but does not need to be refreshed in order to retain data
boot
computer begins loading
Application software
programs written to perform specific tasks
Computer network
connects two or more computers
LAN, local area network
connects several computers that are geographically close to one another, often in the same building, and allows them to share resources, such as a printer, a database, or a file system
clients
user computers
server
one or more helps the clients: supply services to the clients, such as answering database requests
Internet
network of networks
ARPANET
a 1969 US military research project whose goal was to design a method for computers to communicate
LAN, local area network
connects several computers that are geographically close to one another, often in the same building, and allows them to share resources, such as a printer, a database, or a file system
clients
user computers
server
one or more helps the clients: supply services to the clients, such as answering database requests
Internet
network of networks
ARPANET
a 1969 US military research project whose goal was to design a method for computers to communicate
routers
special computers that find a path through the internet networks from your computer to the correct destination
IP address
Internet Protocol address, unique ID, every machine on the internet has it
static IP address
dedicated to that machine
dynamic IP address
assigned to the computer when it is connected to the internet
URL
Uniform Resource Locator
Domain name resolution servers - DNS
Domain Name Servers, convert domain names to IP address so that Internet users don't need to know the IP address of web sites they want to visit
World Wide Web Consortium (W3C)
an international group developing standards for Internet access
URI
Uniform Resource Identifier - covers future Internet addressing schemes
Binary Numbers
expressed in the base 2 system because there are only two values in the system 0 and 1
base 8
octal, digits 0-7
base 16
hexadecimal, 0-9 A-F
Unicode Worldwide Character Standard -
Unicode - Java represents characters with this format
Unicode Consortium
consists of computer manufacturers, software vendors, the governments of several nations, and others
ASCII
American standard code for information interchange