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15 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What is a protocol?
A protocol is the set of rules defined for a particular action regarding technology. People must agree on the same terms in order for communicative equipment to be used. If everyone had their own ways of doing things, then they can't connect. Protocols are the standard.
When you are acting as another person. Proxy IP.
cd ..
"cd .." makes you go back one folder
What is a Rootkit?
A rootkit is a trojan that hides on your computer and allows other people to senak into it and snoop on you and turn your computer into a "zombie. Rootkits might hide all sorts of terrible things insiode your computer.. See this news story for details on the threat of zombie computers.

You can check to see if there is a rootkit installed on your computer with F-Secure BlackLight, RootkitRevealer by SysInternals, or RootKit Hook Analyzer.

If you discover your computer is infected with a rootkit, if you already had an antivirus program running, obviously the antivirus program wasn't able to defend your computer. Usually what will work is to uninstall your old antivirus program, install a new one and give it a chance to attack the rootkit.
Free Antivirus programs
AVG Free, AntiVir PersonalEdition Classic, Avast! 4 Home Edition, BitDefender 8 Free Edition

Warning! No antivirus program is good enough to find everything that might have been sneaked into your computer if it was compromised with a rootkit. The only thing you accomplish by finding out which antivirus program can eradicate your rootkit is that this tells you which of them is a better antivirus program. If you want to be safe, after discovering a rootkit, you need to save your data, reformat your hard drive and reinstall every thing. Be sure to install your firewall and antivirus program -- the one that was good enough to eradicate the rootkit -- immediately after you reinstall your operating system or use the system restore disks that came with your computer. Don't install anything else, including your data, until after you get your antivirus program running.
What is adware?
Some forms of adware make your browser open up web pages against your will. They often reset your home page. Other adware programs are more sneaky. They feed popup ads to your browser, making it look as if the web site you are browsing is sending them.
What is spyware?
It is any sort of program that snoops on your computer and sends information out to mysterious people or companies. Spyware is far more sneaky than adware. Even if you have a firewall, a program that you have permitted to access the Internet may be also sending out information it has stolen from you. Most spyware programs just snoop on your web browsing activities. Some are far more dangerous, stealing passwords, credit card and banking information.
How does your computer get infected?
One way is to visit a malicious web site while using a vulnerable browser (almost always Internet Explorer). The other way is by installing free software that hides adware or spyware.
Why won't antivirus programs eradicate all adware or spyware?
The trick that forces antivirus companies to ignore most adware and spyware is that EULA (end user license agreement) that you sign when you install free software from the Internet. For example, many porn sites require that you click on a box that says it will install something to enhance your viewing pleasure, maybe a video program. Once you click on that EULA, you have given permission for the provider of the software to also install adware or spyware.
How to get rid of adware and spyware
. For instant free help, try Ad-aware,
http://lavasoft.element5.com/software/adaware, and Spybot, http://www.safer-networking.org. You can use one or both together, as they are compatible. In addition, if you are more of a power user, you can install BHODemon. It is free from http://www.definitivesolutions.com/bhodemon.htm. It enables you to control the "browser helper objects" of Internet Explorer (IE). Adware and spyware and some viruses and worms exploit IE. Watch out for fake products! Some actually install adware or spyware instead of removing it!

To prevent future infections, use a browser that isn't so vulnerable to attack. Don't use Internet Explorer! For free, safe browsers, check out http://www.mozilla.org and http://www.opera.com.
Disable JAVA and Active X. for PROTECTION
Disable JAVA and Active X. To do this under MS IE, move your default-browsing zone to High security in Tools-Internet Options. This switches off 90% of MSIE exploits. You don't have to enter the sites that don't let you enter without Java and Active X enabled. Know how to read cookies and take a close look at them. Use software like cookie crusher and every time you log online crush all your previously received cookies. If you have to use IE then make sure that you run Windows Update at least once a week.
Use at least one personal firewall software - Protection
. Zone Alarm (ZA) is a good one but others are available and new ones are coming up everyday. Use at least one Intrusion Detection System; Visual Zone is a good one that is compatible with ZA.
Beware when using chat programs like IRC, ICQ, -Protection
Beware when using chat programs like IRC, ICQ, Yahoo!, etc etc. What happens is that when you use these to chat with your friends there is a peer-to-peer connection occurs between you and your friend. That is, your IP address is exposed leaving room for the other person to scan your computer looking for ways to break in. For this, if you must use those chat tools then go through a proxy. This will at least help you to hide your real IP.
Avoid bootong from floppies - Protection
Also avoid booting from floppies. Go to your computer's BIOS (hit the delete key while booting up , before your operating system starts loading) to disable booting from floppy. This will prevent boot-sector viruses from attacking your pc.
Set Explorer to show file extensions - Protection
Set Explorer to show file extensions. For this go to Windows Explorer/ My Computers > Tools > Folder Options > View (tab) > and uncheck the ‘Hide File Extension For Known File Type’ box. This will help you to avoid clicking on hoaxes. For example, a file viewed with the hide known extensions option may look like "harmlessfile.doc". But with this option disabled, it will show the extension, which may reveal that this file is actually "harmlessfile.doc.exe".