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26 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
How many generations is the history of Computers divided into? and what are they?
1. Vacuum tubes (1951)
2. Transistors (1959)
3. Integrated Circuits (1964)
4. Large scale integration of Circiuitry (1971)
why did it take so long to develop computers?
-human foibles - brilliant ideas were not recognized
-workers sabotaged
-insights were ahead of their time's technology
what did leonardo da vinci do?
he sketched ideas for a mechanical adding machine
Who was Blaise Pascal why is he important to computer history?
-he was a french mathematician and philosopher who invented the "pascaline"
-invention was expensive and delicate
-was abandoned as impractical because labour was cheaper
What is the pascaline?
-used counting wheel design
-revolution of wheels
Who was Joseph-Marie Jacquard?
-he was a weaver who invented the "jacquard loom" in an attempt to reduce the amount of work for coworkers
what is the jacquard loom?
-used cards and had holes punched in them
-first significant use of binary automation
Who was Charles babbage and and why was he important?
-he envisioned the "difference engine" and the "analytical engine"
-his devices introduced many concepts in today's genearl purpose computers
Who is lady Augusta Ada King and why is she important?
-countess of Lovelace
-mentor of babbage
-suggested that cards could be prepared to instruct babbage's engine to repeat certain operations
-first programmer
who was Herman Hollerith and why is he important?
-special agent helping US bureau with census
-devised punched-card tabulating machine used for census
who founded IBM, in what year, and how did it progress through history?
-Hermain Hollerith founded the Tabulating Machine Company in 1896
-which became computing-tabulating-record company in 1911
-which became International business machines (IBM) in 1924
what is the EAM era?
-EAM stands for Electromechanical accounting machine
-happened in 1920s
hand trucks
-prewired control panel
Who is Dr.John V. Atanasoff?
-professor of iowa state
-assembled ABC (atanasoff berry computer)
How does ABC work?
-used an electronic medium with vacuume tubes, base 2 number system, and memory and logic circuits
-some consider to be the first computer
who created the first programmable computer and what was it called?
Konrad Zuse did in 1939
-it was called Z1
Who was Alan Turing and what did he do?
-his ideas were used to design Colossus (completed in 1943)
-broke nazi codes
-based on vacuume tubes, considered by many to be first digitial computer
who designed the Mark I computer and what how did the computer work?
-Prof.Howard Aiken
-Mark I was automatic general purpose calculater
-serial collection of electromechanical calculators- simimalar to babbage's analytical engine
who was John Von Neumann?
-created software
-stored program concept
who designed the ENIAC computer(Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer) and what is so special about it?
-Dr.Jogn W.Mauchly and J.Presper Eckert Jr.
-1000x faster than electromehcanical predecessors
-operated in decimal
-weighed 30 tons
What is UNIVAC and what is so special about it?
UNIVersal Automatic Computer
-also developed by mauchly and eckert
-1st commercially viable comp
-1st generation of computers is thought o have started with UNIVAC
Who is Grace Murray Hopper?
-driving force behind COBOL
-created compiler
-credited for finding bug
What marked the beginning of the second generation of computers? when?
-in 1959
-honeywell 400, the transistor was more powerful , more reliable, less expensive, and cooler to operate
-also software improvements
what is the PDP-8?
-first successful minicomputer
-transistor based
-more affordable
what happened in 1964?
-IBM's system 360 was introduced
- marked beginning of integrateed circuits (IC)
-beginning of 3rd generation of computers
-made previous computers obsolute
-upward compatible
what happened in the 1970s?
-large-scale integration of cicuitry marked beginning of 4th generation (1971)
-1975, bill gales formed microsoft
-1977, altair 88000 introduced
-1977, steven jobs and steve wozniak created apple II
READ more about 4rth gen if you want in course book.