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90 Cards in this Set

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Bureaucratic Structures
Organizational structures that are typically weak in psychological support and characterized by specialization of function, adherence to strict rules, and a hierarchy of authority.
seven habits
Be Proactive, begin with the end in mind, put first things first, think win/win, seek first to understand, synergize and sharpen the saw
Decision Making
seeks to unearth and solve the fundamental problem
Educational leadership
Prior to the 1930s, the early forms of managerial leadership emerged in schools as part of the scientific management movement.
Managerial Style
Assumes the central focus of leadership are on functions, tasks and behaviors
Mentoring
guides another individual in the protocol and processes of an organization
Motivation
The force within people
Moral Leadership Style
Focus of leadership is on the values and ethics of the leaders themselves.
Organizational Culture
System of shared beliefs within an organization that guide development and behavior
Participative Leadership
Leadership and decision making processes are a group function
Personal Assessment
Includes evaluating all dimensions of ones life
Social Need
Include the need for belonging, for association, for acceptance, for giving and receiving friendship and love
Task Activity
Actions that contribute to the groups performance and purpose
Transformational Leadership
Focuses on the commitments and capacities of the organizational members
Achievement Tests
Norm-referenced test, where an individuals test performance is compared to the performance of other individuals
Criterion-referenced Test
Where a specific level of performance is defined and there is no relationship to the performance of other test-takers
Standardized Tests
Usually commercially produced and have a broad application
Researcher-made Test
Designed for a specific purpose and are limited in their application
Chi-Square
Always more than two. Two or more groups on a nominal variable with two or more categories
Coding
Example: male=1 Female=2
Continuous Recording
Recording behavior on a continuous basis with little concern as to the specificity of its content
Continuous Variable
Age, achievement score, monthly income, ect
Correlation
Is how two or more things are related or how a specific outcome might be predicted by one or more pieces of information
Correlation Coefficient
Ranges from -1.00 to +1.00 and can be listed as either positive or negative. .8 to 1.0= very strong. .0 to .2= weak
Degrees of Freedom
A statistical value that has it’s basis in sample size
Dependant Variable
The outcome variable. What the researcher can manipulate
Descriptive Research
Research that describes characteristics without any attempt to determine what causes the phenomenon
Descriptive Statistics
A “snapshot” of what the data look like
Difficulty Index
Is used in test analysis and helps maximize discrimination on tests by allowing the maker to include questions of several levels of difficulty
Distribution
The general shape of the data
Experimental Research
Research that examines cause and effect relationships through the use of control and treatment groups
External Criticism
Authenticity
Historical Research
How we document or record
Research Hypothesis
Require two or more variables
Independent Variable
Must take at least two levels or values
Inferential Statistics
Accurately select a sample in such a way as to maximize it’s representativeness to the population
Internal Criticism
The process of determining the accuracy and worth of information contained in historical research
Likert Scale
Coding. Attitude measurements
Longitudinal Studies
Assesses changes in one group of subjects at more than one time. Disadvantage: expensive and has a potential for a high dropout rate
Manipulation
Anytime you tweak a variable
Mean
Arithmetic average
Mode
Score that most frequently occurs
Median
Point where equal number of raw scores lie on both sides
Meta-Analysis
Allows one to combine and summarize the results of several individual experiments.
Pearson’s Correlation
Expressed as a number between -1.00 and +1.00. The numerical index reflecting the relationship between variables.
Population
The entirety of any group
Prediction
“Guessing” the value of the second variable when you know the value of the first
Primary Sources
People, Documents or objects that present first-hand information
Probability
P value. Measurement of statistical significance.
Qualitative Research
Inductive. Understanding a social or human problem through a holistic picture verbally formatted
Quantitative Research
Deductive. Testing a theory composed of variables that are measured by numeric values
Randomness
Methods that allow everyone a equal chance of being selected or being placed into a particular group
Raw Data
Data collected by the researcher before it is organized.
Regression
The tendency for extreme scores to move toward more typical levels when retested
Research Precedents
How previous research in a particular area was conducted.
Sampling
Selection of a specific group to represent a larger population
Sampling Error
Reducing it is the major goal of any selection technique.
Sampling Techniques
Used to select a sample for a research study
Volunteer Sample
Volunteers with specific characteristics (drug testing).
Secondary Sources
Sources that are secondhand or once removed from the original event
Standard Deviation
Average distance that each individual score varies from the mean of a set of scores. Used to measure variability.
Stratified Random Sampling
Average distance that each individual score varies from the mean of a set of scores. Used to measure variability.
T-Test
The significance of the difference between two means based upon two independent, unrelated groups.
Validity
4 types: Content, Criterion, Predictive and Construct.
Variability
The degree of spread in group scores within a distribution.
Variable
3 types: Dependent, Independent and Control.
California Emergenc Services Act
Governor can proclaim a state of emergency when: a disaster creates extreme peril to the public, when requested to do so by a mayor or city Chief Executive or when it is believed the local authority is inadequate with the emergency
Emergency Operation Command Staff
Consists of: Information Officer, Safety Officer and Liaison Officer. They report directly to the Incident Commander.
Comprehensive Emergency
Management (CEM)
Integrated approach in all 4 phases (mitigation, preparedness, response and recovery) and involves all levels of government and the private sector. Comprehensive Emergency plans involve governments and business and protect assets from all types of hazards.
Burden of disaster Mgmt.
Requires close working relationships among all levels of government (federal, tribal, regional, state, county and local).
Emergency
Any unplanned event that can cause deaths or significant injuries.
Emergency Operations Center (EOC)
Predesignated facility established by an agency or jurisdiction to coordinate overall agency or jurisdiction response and support to an emergency.
FEMA
Recently became part of the Department of Homeland Security in March 2003.
FEMA Responsibilities
Advising on building codes and flood plain management, helping equip local and state emergency preparedness, coordinating federal response to disaster, making disaster assistance available, training emergency managers, supporting the nation’s fire service and administering the national flood and crime insurance programs.
Incident Command System
Command, control and coordination of responses to emergencies. There are 5 major components: Command, planning, operations, logistics and finance & administration.
Liaison Officer
Serves as the on-scene contact for the other agencies assigned to the incident.
Operations Section Chief
Coordinates the operations section and is responsible for assisting the incident commander in developing response goals and objectives.
Incident Commander
Effective ones must be assertive, decisive, objective, calm and quick thinkers. They also need to be adaptable, flexible and realistic about their own limitations. Regardless of size or complexity, all incidents have an incident commander
Incident Commanders
Perform command functions, protect life and property, control personnel and equipment resources, maintain accountability and maintain effective liaisons
Mitigation
Lasting, often permanent reduction of exposure to, probability of, or potential loss from hazard events. Ideally mitigation occurs before the disaster
Presidential Declaration of Disaster
1950 Congress passed the Federal Disaster Relief Act. Authorized the President to provide supplementary federal assistance when a Governor requests help and the President approved the request by declaring a major disaster. On average, 79% of requests are declared disaster areas.
Recovery
Includes activities necessary to restore the jurisdiction to normal with a goal of returning it to an improved state
ICS Unified Command
Unified team effort which allows all agencies with
responsibility for the incident, either geographic or functional, to manage an incident by establishing a common set of objectives and strategies. It is important that working relations are understood and agreed upon for a specific type of emergency incident prior to establishing Unified Command.
Unified Command
Consistent, systematic means of organizing a variety of autonomous civilian agencies into one concerted emergency response
Incident Command
Originated from the devastating S. Cal wildfires in 1970
Command Post
Is signified by a revolving green light that can be seen from great distances
Effective Span Of Control
5 subordinate units per supervisory position. 8 to one if simple and communications are good
Inter-agency Communications
When organizers have interacted and coordinated with each other before-hand, they have had fewer problems doing so in a disaster.
Centralized Media
Establish a central source of disaster information.
Incident Command System
Was established to combat 6 major problem areas:

Lack of common organization
Poor on-scene and inter-agency
communications
Inadequate joint planning
Lack of valid and timely intelligence
Inadequate resource management
Limited prediction capability