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33 Cards in this Set

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Brainstem
Sits directly on top of the spinal cord and is the conduit between brain and spinal cord. It consists of midbrain, pons, and the medulla oblongata.
3 primary functions: Key transmitter of sensory info to the brain and motor info away from the brain; major relay station for the cranial nerves supplying the head and face and for controlling the visual and auditory senses; associated with metabolism and arousal.
3 reflex centers: cadiac center (heart); vasometer center (blood vessels); respiratory center (breathing)
agent
In an event, the entity which preforms the action.
Broca's area
Motor cortex of the left frontal lobe; responsible for the fine coordination of speech output.
Named after French physician Paul Broca
assessment
Measuring a child's language development by using production, judgement and comprehension tests.
An ongoing procedure used to identify a child's needs, family concerns and resources.
Cerebellum
oval shaped "little brain" which sits behind the brainstem and regulates motor and muscular activity like coordination of motor movements, maintenance of muscle tone, monitoring of the movement range and strength, and maintenance of posture and equilibrium
Cerebrum
or cerebral cortex: crucial roles in "lang, conceptual thinking, creativity, planning and the ways in which we give form and substance to our thoughts.
40% of brain weight and contains 100 billion neurons.
categorical scope
Part of the second tier for the Lexical Principals Framework; limiting the basis for
extension to words that are taxonomically similar and builds upon tier one principle of extension
expressive language
Use lang primarily for social exchanges; express their needs and describe their feelings as they interact with others. Ex: "hi" and "bye"
Connectionist model
How the human brain processes and produces lang: a network of distributed processors that interact with one another via excitatory and inhibitory connections. Connectivity among units critical for understanding how info is processed.
customary age of production
Sander's Customary age of production: 50% of children are able to produce a given sound in an adult-like way in multiple positions.
Corpus callosum
Band of fibers that connects two hemispheres, serving as a conduit for communication between the left and right hemispheres of the cerebrum.
Experience-dependent plasticity
Unique to a given individual; requires highly-specific types of experiences for change
Utilizes 3 mechanisms: formation of new synaptic connections among neurons (dendritic sprouting), generation of new neurons, and increase in synaptic strength.
Brain capacity available independent of age.
Vocabulary growth (Hart & rRsley, 1995)
evaluation
Determine a child's initial and continuing eligibility for services under IDEA; including determination of the child's status across developmental areas. Structured, standardized and limited in duration.
imperative pointing
Requests to adults to retrieve objects; around 10 months. (6-12 months)
event-related potentials
Cap fitted with several electrodes with measure brains electrical response to particular linguistic stimuli.
Experience-expectant plasticity
Changes in brain structures that occur due to normal experiences; develops "obligatory cortical functions"
Once the sensitive period for a given experience-expectant brain function has passed, environmental experiences no longer readily modify cortical circuits
extendibility
Part of the first tier of Lexical Principles Framework where words label categories of objects and not just the original object.
Heschl's gyrus
Small region of the left temporal lobe that appears specialized for the processing of speech, particularly the temporal aspects of speech.
intersubjective awareness
The recognition of when one shares a mental focus on some external object or action with another person. (6-12 months)
neural plasticity
Malleability of the central nervous system; capacity for the sensory and motor systems to organize and reorganize themselves by generating new synaptic connections, or by using existing synapses for alternative means.
neurotransmitters
Chemical agents that help transmit information across the synaptic cleft.
parietal lobes
Two lobes which sit posterior to the frontal lobe on the left and right sides (above the ears). The key functions are perceiving and integrating sensory and perceptual info (left), and comprehending oral and written lang. and calculation for mathematics (right).
*Important to working memory and essential for most higher-order executive functions and or acquiring and accessing one's lexicon.*
Contains Primary somatosensory cortex and sensory association cortex.
phonetic modules
Human brain as a specialized processor designed specifically for phonetic segments of speech.

Rapid analysis of temporal characteristics of speec sounds occurs int he auditory centers of the left temporal lobes, processing of spectral charcteristics of speech sounds occurs in the right temporal lobe, and brain research has not been able to identify a single structure of location in the brain that is specialized only for the processing of speech.
prefrontal cortex
Most anterior portion fo the frontal lobe.
Affective aspects of sensation, including gloom, elation, calmness, and friendliness. Also called the "Regulator of the depth of feeling" (Noback, 2005)
phonetically consistent form (PCF)
idiosynactic word-like forms which children use consistently and meaningfully but do not assume approximations of adult-like forms. Ex: Ahhh as water.
Consistent sound structure used in several contexts, rather than a single referent. Learn the value of adopting a stable pronunciation to communicate in a particular situation.
receptive speech area
(Wernicke's area) language comprehension. Sits in the superior portion of the left temporal lobe near the intersection of the parietal, occipital and temporal lobes. Point of convergence for receiving and integrating associations from throughout the brain.
sensory association cortex
part of the parietal lobes.
reference
Part of the first tier of Lexical Principles Framework where words symbolize objects, actions, events and concepts.
synaptic cleft
space between the axon of the transmitting neuron and dendrite of the receiving neuron
referential gestures
Precise referent and stable meaning across different contexts, ex: holding hand to ear to symbolize phone.
Has similar properties to first words and use signals an impending transition from prelinguistic to linguistic communication.
Wernicke's area
(receptive speech area) language comprehension.
Wernicke's aphasia: damage to the Wernicke's area; significant challenges in processing and producing coherent lang in both spoken and written form.
paralinguistic
Describe the manner of speech outside of the linguistic info; high overall pitch, exaggerated pitch contours, slower tempos (as compared to adult-directed speech)
whole object assumption
The presumption words label whole objects and not object parts (part of object scope)