Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/32

Click to flip

32 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
  • 3rd side (hint)
IMPORTANT WORDS FROM COMPETENCY 41
FORCE
MOTION
UNIVERSAL FORCE
NEWTON
DISPLACEMENT
VELOCITY
ACCELERATION
VECTOR
DESCRIP 1
interactions of matter are governed by forces, of which there are fundamentally four, though these forces can be combined to create numerous others exp. friction,
descrip2
Most peopl are familar with scaaler quatiites which only need to have their magnitude, measured in order to be described;, forces, however are VECTOR QUANTITES that have boat an magnitude and direction, and both these qualities that have both a magnitude and a direction, and both these qualities are important for their descripin otion
descript3
the relationship between forces and motion can be found all around us, from the machines we use to the bio process in our bodies
THE FOUR UNIVERSAL FORCES-GRAVITY-THE WEAKEST FOUR FORCES ALSO CALLED FUNDAMENTAL FORCES WHICH DICTATES HOW MATTER INTERACTS. EACH FORCE IS ASSOCIATIED WITH A PARTICLE, UNIQUE TO IT, WHICH IS SEEN TO BE WITH THE SMALLEST QUANTITY OF THE FORCCE AND WICH HAS THE RESPONSIBILTY OF CARRY THAT FORES
It is the weakest of the forcesGravitation is a natural phenomenon by which all objects with mass attract each other. In everyday life, gravitation is most familiar as the agency that endows objects with weight. Gravitation is responsible for keeping the Earth and the other planets in their orbits around the Sun; for keeping the Moon in its orbit around the Earth; for the formation of tides; for convection (by which hot fluids rise); for heating the interiors of forming stars and planets to very high temperatures; and for various other phenomena that we observe. Gravitation is also the reason for the very existence of the Earth, the Sun, and most macroscopic objects in the universe; without it, matter would not have coalesced into these large masses and life, as we know it, would not exist.

Modern physics describes gravitation using the general theory of relativity, but the much simpler Newton's law of universal gravitation provides an excellent approximation in most cases.

In scientific terminology gravitation and gravity are distinct. "Gravitation" is the attractive influence that all objects exert on each other, while "gravity" specifically refers to a force which all massive objects (objects with mass) are theorized to exert on each other to cause gravitation. Although these terms are interchangeable in everyday use, in theories other than Newton's, gravitation is caused by factors other than gravity. For example in general relativity, gravitation is due to spacetime curvatures which causes inertially moving objects to tend to accelerate towards each other. Another (discredited) example is Le Sage's theory of gravitation, in which massive objects are effectively pushed towards each
THE FOUR UNIVERSAL FORCES-THE WEAK NUCLEAR FORCE-THE WEAKEST FOUR FORCES ALSO CALLED FUNDAMENTAL FORCES WHICH DICTATES HOW MATTER INTERACTS. EACH FORCE IS ASSOCIATIED WITH A PARTICLE, UNIQUE TO IT, WHICH IS SEEN TO BE WITH THE SMALLEST QUANTITY OF THE FORCCE AND WICH HAS THE RESPONSIBILTY OF CARRY THAT FORES
THE WEAKESTT OF THE FOUR FORCES AND IT IS ATTRCTIVE-The weak interaction (often called the weak force or sometimes the weak nuclear force) is one of the four fundamental interactions of nature. In the Standard Model of particle physics, it is due to the exchange of the heavy W and Z bosons. Its most familiar effect is beta decay (of neutrons in atomic nuclei) and the associated radioactivity. The word "weak" derives from the fact that the field strength is some 1013 times less than that of the strong force. this is the force responsible
THE FOUR UNIVERSAL FORCES-the electromagnetic force
THIS FORCE IS THE SECOND STTRONGEST FORCE AND THE GRAVITY, AND The electromagnetic force is one of the four fundamental forces. The other fundamental forces are the strong nuclear force, which holds quarks together along with it's residual strong force effect that holds atomic nuclei together to form the nucleus, the weak nuclear force, which causes certain forms of radioactive decay, and the gravitational force. All other forces are ultimately derived from these fundamental forces.

The electromagnetic force is the one responsible for practically all the phenomena one encounters in daily life, with the exception of gravity. Roughly speaking, all the forces involved in interactions between atoms can be traced to the electromagnetic force acting on the electrically charged protons and electrons inside the atoms. This includes the forces we experience in "pushing" or "pulling" ordinary material objects, which come from the intermolecular forces between the individual molecules in our bodies and those in the objects. It also includes all forms of chemical phenomena, which arise from interactions between electron orbitals.

THIS FORCE THAT KEEPS ATOMS TOGETHER, CAUSING I ATTRACTION BETWEEN POSITVE AND NEGATIVE
THE FORCE COMES IN TWO FLAVORS, NEG/POS, TWO POS, WILL REPEL EACH OTHER OR CANCAL EACH OTHER OUT. wHEN A NEGATIVE AND A POSITVE COMES TOGETHER THEY ATTRACT EACH OTHER AND COMBINE.
THE FOUR UNIVERSAL FORCES-THE STRONG NUCLEAR FORCE-THE WEAKEST FOUR FORCES ALSO CALLED FUNDAMENTAL FORCES WHICH DICTATES HOW MATTER INTERACTS. EACH FORCE IS ASSOCIATIED WITH A PARTICLE, UNIQUE TO IT, WHICH IS SEEN TO BE WITH THE SMALLEST QUANTITY OF THE FORCCE AND WICH HAS THE RESPONSIBILTY OF CARRY THAT FORES
The Strong Nuclear Force (also referred to as the strong force) is one of the four basic forces in nature (the others being gravity, the electromagnetic force, and the weak nuclear force). As its name implies, it is the strongest of the four. However, it also has the shortest range, meaning that particles must be extremely close before its effects are felt. Its main job is to hold together the subatomic particles of the nucleus (protons, which carry a positive charge, and neutrons, which carry no charge. These particles are collectively called nucleons). As most people learn in their science education, like charges repel (+ +, or - -), and unlike charges attract (+ -).




If you consider that the nucleus of all atoms except hydrogen contain more than one proton, and each proton carries a positive charge, then why would the nuclei of these atoms stay together? The protons must feel a repulsive force from the other neighboring protons. This is where the strong nuclear force comes in. The strong nuclear force is created between nucleons by the exchange of particles called mesons. This exchange can be likened to constantly hitting a ping-pong ball or a tennis ball back and forth between two people. As long as this meson exchange can happen, the strong force is able to hold the participating nucleons together. The nucleons must be extremely close together in order for this exchange to happen. The distance required is about the diameter of a proton or a neutron. If a proton or neutron can get closer than this distance to another nucleon, the exchange of mesons can occur, and the particles will stick to each other. If they can't get that close, the strong force is too weak to make them stick together, and other competing forces (usually the electromagnetic force) can influence the particles to move apart. This is represented in the following graphic. The dotted line surrounding the nucleon being approached represents any electrostatic repulsion that might be present due to the charges of the nucleons/particles that are involved. A particle must be able to cross this barrier in order for the strong force to "glue" the particles together.

iNDEED NOT ONLY DOES THIS FORCE KEEPS PROTONS AND NEURTRONS INSIDE THE NUCLEAUS OF AN ATOM, BOT IT ALSO KEEPS THE FORCES TOGETHER
CHARACTERISTICS OF FORCES-FRICTION
Friction is the force that opposes the relative motion of two surfaces in contact. It is not a fundamental force, as it is derived from electromagnetic forces between atoms. When contacting surfaces move relative to each other, the friction between the two objects converts kinetic energy into thermal energy, or heat. Friction between solid objects is often refered to as Dry Friction and frictional forces between two fluids (gases or liquids) as Fluid Friction. In addition to these there is also Internal Friction which illustrates a body's ability to recover from external deformantion. Contrary to popular belief, sliding friction is not caused by surface roughness, but by chemical bonding between the surfaces.[1]
CHARACTERISTICS OF FORCES-TENSION THE NORMAL FORCE
Tension (physics), a force related to the stretching of a string or a similar object
high-tension line, sometimes used to refer to electrical voltage
'Tension' in politics and international relations: strained relations between parties, possibly leading to unrest and war.
'Tension', a colloquialism used to refer to physiological or mental stress
Tension (music), in music, the perceived need for relaxation or release created by a listener's expectations
Suspense, or "tension", in a dramatic work: the feeling of uncertainty and interest about the outcome of certain actions an audience perceives.
Tenseness, in phonetics, describes
CHARACTERISTICS OF FORCES-CHEMCIAL BONDING
Chemical Bonding
by Anthony Carpi, Ph.D.
en español

Though the periodic table has only 118 or so elements, there are obviously more substances in nature than 118 pure elements. This is because atoms can react with one another to form new substances called compounds. Formed when two or more atoms chemically bond together, the resulting compound is unique both chemically and physically from its parent atoms.

Let's look at an example. The element sodium is a silver-colored metal that reacts so violently with water that flames are produced when sodium gets wet. The element chlorine is a greenish-colored gas that is so poisonous that it was used as a weapon in World War I. When chemically bonded together, these two dangerous substances form the compound sodium chloride, a compound so safe that we eat it every day - common table salt!

+
sodium metal
chlorine gas
table salt


In 1916, the American chemist Gilbert Newton Lewis proposed that chemical bonds are formed between atoms because electrons from the atoms interact with each other. Lewis had observed that many elements are most stable when they contain eight electrons in their valence shell. He suggested that atoms with fewer than eight valence electrons bond together to share electrons and complete their valence shells.

While some of Lewis' predictions have since been proven incorrect (he suggested that electrons occupy cube-shaped orbitals), his work established the basis of what is known today about chemical bonding. We now know that there are two main types of chemical bonding; ionic bonding and covalent bonding.

Ionic Bonding
In ionic bonding, electrons are completely transferred from one atom to another. In the process of either losing or gaining negatively charged electrons, the reacting atoms form ions. The oppositely charged ions are attracted to each other by electrostatic forces, which are the basis of the ionic bond.

For example, during the reaction of sodium with chlorine:

sodium (on the left) loses its one valence electron to chlorine (on the right),
resulting in
a positively charged sodium ion
CHARACT TO CHANGE THE STATEERISTICS OF FORCES
ALL CHARACTERISTICS CAN BE VIEWED AS INTRACTING WHITH ANY OF THE ABOVE CHARACTERISIICS
ECHNICALLY A FORCE
IS ANYTHING THAT HAS THE TENDENCY THAT STATE OF REST OR MOTION OF A BODY 2) FORCE CAN CAUSE A BODY TO ACCELRATE, TURN OR DISTORT.
FORCE PUSHES
IT MOVE THINGS FORWARD OUR ONE THAT CAUSE AN OBJECT TO MOVE AWAY FROM THE SOURCE OF THE FORCE
forces are what?
vecters, quantities that have both a magnitude and a direction. more than one force can be acting on any one bodya at a time the total effect of these forces can be calculated by summing up all the relevant forces using the parallelgram, aw/ This total is called the net force. The SI unit used to measure force is the Newton (symbol N) which is equivaletn to kg/* s^2
vectors simplified
In this tutorial we will examine some of the elementary ideas concerning vectors. The reason for this introduction to vectors is that many concepts in science, for example, displacement, velocity, force, acceleration, have a size or magnitude, but also they have associated with them the idea of a direction. And it is obviously more convenient to represent both quantities by just one symbol. That is the vector.
#1 Two vectors, A and B are equal if they have the same magnitude and direction, regardless of whether they have the same initial points, as shown in
Panel 2.
Panel 2
#2 A vector having the same magnitude as A but in the opposite direction to A is denoted by -A , as shown in Panel 3.
Panel 3



--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
We can now define vector addition. The sum of two vectors, A and B, is a vector C, which is obtained by placing the initial point of B on the final point of A, and then drawing a line from the initial point of A to the final point of B , as illustrated in Panel 4. This is sometines referred to as the "Tip-to-Tail" method.
What is motion
In physics, motion means a continuous change in the position of a body relative to a reference point, as measured by a particular observer in a particular frame of reference. Until the end of the 19th century, Isaac Newton's laws of motion, which he posited as axioms or postulates in his famous Principia were the basis of what has since become known as classical physics. Calculations of trajectories and forces of bodies in motion based on Newtonian or classical physics were very successful until physicists began to be able to measure and observe very fast physical phenomena.

At very high speeds, the equations of classical physics were not able to calculate accurate values. To address these problems, the ideas of Henri Poincaré and Albert Einstein concerning the fundamental phenomenon of motion were adopted in lieu of Newton's. Whereas Newton's laws of motion assumed absolute values of space and time in the equations of motion, the model of Einstein and Poincaré, now called the special theory of relativity, assumed values for these concepts with arbitrary zero points. Because (for example) the special relativity equations yielded accurate results at high speeds and Newton's did not, the special relativity model is now accepted as explaining bodies in motion (when we ignore gravity). However, as a practical matter, Newton's equations are much easier to work with than those of special relativity and therefore are more often used in applied physics and engineering.

In the newtonian model, because motion is defined as the proportion of space to time, these concepts are prior to motion, just as the concept of motion itself is prior to force. In other words, the properties of space and time determine the nature of motion and the properties of motion, in turn, determine the nature of force.

In the special relativistic model, motion can be thought of as something like an angle between a space direction and the time direction.

In special relativity and Euclidean space, only relative motion can be measured, and absolute motion is meaningless.

An object is in motion when its distance from another object is changing.Whether the object is moving or not depends on your point of view. For example, a woman riding in a bus is not moving in relation to the seat she is sitting on, but she is moving in relation to the buildings the bus passes. A reference point is a place or object
displacement
a vector quantity that descripes the postion of a particle in refence to an orgin, or that particle's change in postion. An object can cover a large distance, but if it ends up in the same place where it started, its deplacement is o
velocity
the speed of a particualr direction. Since speed ( a scalar quantity) and direction are both important in determining velocity, it is a vector quantiity) and direction are both important in determining velocity, it is a vector quantiy. The graph on page 194 have a constant velocity becuase the slope of the line is unchanging. while Graph 3 illustrates a particle with changing velocity
example of velocity
In physics, acceleration is defined as the rate of change of velocity, or, equivalently, as the second derivative of position. It is thus a vector quantity with dimension length/time². In SI units, acceleration is measured in metres/second² (m·s-²). The term "acceleration" generally refers to the change in instantaneous velocity.
acceleration
In physics, acceleration is defined as the rate of change of velocity, or, equivalently, as the second derivative of position. It is thus a vector quantity with dimension length/time². In SI units, acceleration is measured in metres/second² (m·s-²). The term "acceleration" generally refers to the change in instantaneous velocity.




Simple Mathematical Explanation

where v is velocity, d is distance and t is time.


where a is acceleration, v is velocity and t is time.
Forces of Motion
Newton was the first most probably the first to give a math definition of force more importatnly
newtons first law of motion
I. Every object in a state of uniform motion tends to remain in that state of motion unless an external force is applied to it.
Newton's second law of motion
II. The relationship between an object's mass m, its acceleration a, and the applied force F is F = ma. Acceleration and force are vectors (as indicated by their symbols being displayed in slant bold font); in this law the direction of the force vector is the same as the direction of the acceleration vector.

This is the most powerful of Newton's three Laws, because it allows quantitative calculations of dynamics: how do velocities change when forces are applied. Notice the fundamental difference between Newton's 2nd Law and the dynamics of Aristotle: according to Newton, a force causes only a change in velocity (an acceleration); it does not maintain the velocity as Aristotle held.

This is sometimes summarized by saying that under Newton, F = ma, but under Aristotle F = mv, where v is the velocity. Thus, according to Aristotle there is only a velocity if there is a force, but according to Newton an object with a certain velocity maintains that velocity unless a force acts on it to cause an acceleration (that is, a change in the velocity). As we have noted earlier in conjunction with the discussion of Galileo, Aristotle's view seems to be more in accord with common sense, but that is because of a failure to appreciate the role played by frictional forces. Once account is taken of all forces acting in a given situation it is the dynamics of Galileo and Newton, not of Aristotle, that are found to be in accord with the observations.
newtons third law of motion
III. For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction.

This law is exemplified by what happens if we step off a boat onto the bank of a lake: as we move in the direction of the shore, the boat tends to move in the opposite direction (leaving us facedown in the water, if we aren't careful!).
The Law of inertia
Perhaps Galileo's greatest contribution to physics was his formulation of the concept of inertia: an object in a state of motion possesses an ``inertia'' that causes it to remain in that state of motion unless an external force acts on it. In order to arrive at this conclusion, which will form the cornerstone of Newton's laws of motion (indeed, it will become Newton's First Law of Motion), Galileo had to abstract from what he, and everyone else, saw.
Most objects in a state of motion do NOT remain in that state of motion. For example, a block of wood pushed at constant speed across a table quickly comes to rest when we stop pushing. Thus, Aristotle held that objects at rest remained at rest unless a force acted on them, but that objects in motion did not remain in motion unless a force acted constantly on them. Galileo, by virtue of a series of experiments (many with objects sliding down inclined planes), realized that the analysis of Aristotle was incorrect because it failed to account properly for a hidden force: the frictional force between the surface and the object.

Thus, as we push the block of wood across the table, there are two opposing forces that act: the force associated with the push, and a force that is associated with the friction and that acts in the opposite direction. Galileo realized that as the frictional forces were decreased (for example, by placing oil on the table) the object would move further and further before stopping. From this he abstracted a basic form of the law of inertia: if the frictional forces could be reduced to exactly zero (not possible in a realistic experiment, but it can be approximated to high precision) an object pushed at constant speed across a frictionless surface of infinite extent will continue at that speed forever after we stop pushing, unless a new force acts
newton helped invent with his law of force and motion, well he formalized the law. newton helped create the simple machine: Please give and example
inlined planes, machines ot build house, etc
who helped invent the simple machine
What is the continetnal drift?
based on interactions of forces among the layers of on the earth
On the texes exam:Blood flow from the body how?
is dependent on forces: within your vessels. One example of this is the found in the disease "atherosclerosis, also eating over an abundance of foods rich in fatty substance , can cause resistance to blood flow, thereby dangorously decreasing in velocity
frictional forces to the blood vessels
the relationship between force and motion can help what/
when you hit your head against a wall, it hurts, (look at Newts 3rd law)
IN FORCES AND MOTION THE TEACHER MUST UNDERSTAND THE PROPERTIES OF THE FOUR UNIVERSAL FORCE AND OF FORCES IN GENERAL
THE TEACHER MUST BE CLEAR ON THE DIFFRENCE BETWEEN SCALER QUANTITIES AND MUST BE ABLE TO DESCRIBE THE VECTOR NATURE OF A FORCE AND ITS RELATIONSHIPS TO MOTION
THE TEACHER MUST KNOW HOW TO GEOGRAPHICALLY COMMUNICATE VARIOUS WHAT?
ASPECTS OF MOTION AND THE FUNDALMENTAL MEATING OF EACH NEWTON'S LAWS OF MOTIONS. AND THE TEACHER MUST BBE ABLE TO RELATE INTERACTIONS BETWEEN FORCE AND MOTION TO SITUATIONS FAMILIAR TO STUDENTS