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12 Cards in this Set

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What can stimulate an endocrine cell to release its hormones?
-imput
-hormonal imput
-change in a controlled condition
Homeostasis of glucose concentration
insulin - glucose uptake (when increased levels)
glucagon - glucose breakdown(when decreased levels)
sensor : pancreas
summing pt. pancrease
error signals: insulin
controlling elements: liver
controlled variable: glucose uptake
disturbance: carb-rich meal
controlled condition: [glucose] in blood
Diabetes
juvenile onset --> lack of sufficient insulin
adult onset --> downregulation of receptors on liver cells
Control of Amino Acids in Blood
GHRH cuases ant. pit. to release GH which causes a.a. uptake. -- homeostatic control
homeostatic control of reproductive hormones
concentrations of estrogen and progesterone induce hypothalamus to releas GnRH which cuase ant. pit. to release FSH and LH which effect ovaries.
How does homeostatic control play into a 28-day cycle?
switch from neg. feedback -> pos. feedback -> neg. feedback
Menstrual Cycle Summary
-FSH and Lh cause single follicle and ovum to grow
-2nd week: estrogen production by follicle increases
-high levels of estrogen switch to pos. feedback and stimulate FSH and LH peaks
-FSH and LH levels unduce follicle to mature and ovulation occurs
-remaining follicle cells transferred to corpus luteum which secrets lots of estrogen and progesterone.
-during last day, corpus luteum degenerates and unable to maintain estrogen and progesteron secretion
-decrease of estrogen/progesterone removes inhibition of GnRH nad next cycle begins.
Pregnancy
implanted egg produces HCG which maintains corpus luteum so estrogen and progesterone levels remain high.
birth control pills
maintian levels of estrogen and progesterone high, inhibits FSH and Lh peaks which inhibits ovulation
Labor
estrogen from uterus induces oxytocin receptors on uterus. uterus contracts and causes placenta to make prostaglandins. stimulate more uterine contractions by pos. feedback.
Male Hormones
controlled in same way as female, only difference is testosterone nad inhibin are monitored instead of estrogen and progesterone
Homeostatic Control of Calcium Levels in Blood
-decreased calcium levels in blook cause parathyroid to release parathormone which causes bone to release Ca2+
-increase Ca2+ levels induce thyroid gland to release calcitonin which causes bone to uptake Ca2+