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233 Cards in this Set

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What are the properties of muscule tissue?
- Specialized tissue
- Contractile (cells can shorten)
- Depolarizing membrane
myofibril
a contractile unit of muscle cell; a chain of repeating sarcomeres composed of myofilaments
What is the contractile part of a muscle organ?
muscle fiber
What is a chain of repeating sarcomeres composed of myofilaments?
myofibril
Each bundle of muscle fiber is surrounded by __________.
Connective tissue
A bundle of muscle fibers defined by a connective tissue coat within a muscle organ is called a ________.
Fascicle
What type of muscle is composed of fibers with multiple nuclei and striations that produce rapid contractions?
Skeletal muscle
What type of muscle is composed of cells with 1 or 2 nuclei and have striations?
Cardiac muscle
What type of muscle makes up the heart?
Cardiac muscle
How do contractions spread through cell bundles in cardiac muscle?
intercalculated discs
Viscera, blood vessels, and arrector pili are made up of this type of muscle.
Smooth muscle
This type of muscle has a single nuclei, no striations, and slow contraction rate.
Smooth muscle
When each fiber requires nerve input to contract it is called __________.
Neurogenic
In muscle that is neurogenic, each cell is isolated by __________.
Connective tissue
When nerve input is not required to contract, the innervation of the muscle is called _______
Myogenic
What is the distribution of skeletal muscle?
attached to skeleton
What is the morphology of skeletal muscle?
- Fibers with multiple nuclei
- striated
What are the functional properties of skeletal muscle?
rapid contraction that occurs at varying rates
Describe the innervation of skeletal muscle
- Neurogenic
- Individual cells are isolated by CT so nerves can be selective about what cells of muscle to target
What is the distribution of smooth muscle?
viscera, blood vessels, and arrector pili
What is the morphology of smooth muscle?
- Cells with one nucleus
- No striations
What is are the functional properties of smooth muscle?
slow contraction
Describe the innervation of smooth muscle.
- neurogenic - sheet of muscle divided by CT
- cells in a sheet have membrane to membrane contract
- Slow wave of contraction
What is the distribution of cardiac muscle?
heart
What is the morphology of cardiac muscle?
- cells have 1-2 nuclei
- striations
What are the functional properties of cardiac muscle?
contraction spreads through cells via intercalculated discs which form membrane connections and gap junctions
Describe the innervation of cardiac muscle.
- Myogenic
- Contraction rate may be moderated by nerve input
To be functional, muscles and/or tendons must cross a ___________ ______.
Moveable joint
Muscles only generate a force when they _________. Returning to a ______ state doesn not generate a force.
Contract; relaxed
Muscles can only: PULL or PUSH (pick one)
Muscles can only pull, they cannot push
Muscle strength is proportional to _________.
Cross-sectional area
Points of muscle attachment determine ___________ and ________.
Speed and strength
The thin filament of a muscle fiber is made up of _______.
Actin
The thick fialment of a muscle fiber is made up of _________.
Myosin
What is a repeating unit of overlapping myofilaments that composes the contractile myofibril of a muscle cell?
Sarcomere
What is the arrangment of the sarcomere (in terms of fibers)?
Thick and thin filaments are arranged to overlap
In the resting phase there is __________ overlap between thick and thin filaments. In a contracted state, there is _________ overlap between thick and thin filaments
little; lots
Describe the contraction mechanism of the sarcomere.
It is a sliding mechanism
- Myosin heads are attracted to active sites on actin
- If the active sites are exposed, the myosin heads will bind to them and "grab and pull"
Why do muscles bulge?
It is a result of the overlap of actin and myosin filaments that occurs during contraction.
How do muscle fibers prevent constant contraction?
Tropomyosin coils around the active sites on actin to prevent contraction; in the presence of calcium, the tropomyosin uncovers the active site for myosin to bind to
When a muscle functions to bring a limb back towards the midline, its function is _________.
Adduction
When a muscle functions to pull a limb or part away from the midline, its function is ______________.
Abduction
When a muscle pulls two parts away from each other, its function is __________.
Extension
When a muscle pulls two parts toward each other, its function is ___________.
Flexon
Muscles that have the opposite affect of the prime mover are called ___________.
Antagonists
The muscle that performs the action is called the ________.
prime mover or agonist
The muscle that performs the stabalizer function is called _________.
Fixator
The dorsal portion of the myotome is the _______.
Epaxial muscle
The ventral portion of the myotome is the ________.
Hypaxial muscle
This divides the myotomes into dorsal and ventral regions but is lost in amniotes.
horizontal skeletogenous septum
The epaxial muscles of modern amphibians are called the __________ _______.
Dorsalis trunci
What is the significance of the muscular sling of the pectoral girdle?
It is responsible for keeping limbs in place as well as for movement of the girdle
The muscles that run from the thorax to the shoulder to suspend the anterior part of the body form the ______ ______ _ _ ______ _______.
Musclular sling of the pectoral girdle
In mammals, what muscles comprise the muscular sling of the pectoral girldle?
trapezius, rhomboideus, serratus ventralis, and pectoralis
Describe the sliding mechanism of the sarcomere.
- The degree of overlap between the thick (myosin) and thin (actin) filaments changes to create a contraction
- The sliding mechanism is caused by the myosin head grabbing and pulling the active site of actin
- the linked areas of myosin and actin filaments are called cross bridges
How is it possible to stick our your tongue?
Squeeze muscles to produce a "pushing" action
How can a bird raise its wings given that the muscles for this action are located on the sternum ventral to the wings?
Muscles have a pulley system where the contraction of the depressor causes a contraction in the elevator
How is it possible to throw a punch?
Antagonist muscles counteract prime movers
Describe the general structure and function of the axial (epaxial and hypaxial) muscluature in fishes.
myomeres are separated by myosepta, epaxial, and hypaxial muscles divided by horizontal skelegenous septum (except in jawless fishes which have no septum)
Describe the general structure and function of the axial (epaxial and hypaxial) muscluature in Lissamphibia.
- Have epaxial musculature in the form of dorsalis trunci(not specialized)
- Have hypaxial musculature in the form of abdominal musculature; this is specialized and works to keep the viscera in place
Describe the general structure and function of the axial (epaxial and hypaxial) muscluature in amniotes other than birds.
- Have epaxial musculature which is divided into transversospinalis, longissimus, and iliocostals
- Have hypaxial musculature which is divided into abdominal, intercostal, and neck musculature
- NO horizontal skelegentous septum
Describe the general structure and function of the axial (epaxial and hypaxial) muscluature in birds.
Have reduced axial musculature due to fusion of vertebrate column, and ribs; NO HSS
What is the mammalian homolog of the cucullaris of chondricthyes?
trapezius
What is the mammalian homolog of the adductor mandibulae of chondricthyes?
masseter, temporalis, and pterygoid
What is the mammalian homolog of the levator palatoquadrate of chondricthyes?
Lost in groups with palatoquadrate incorporated into skull????????
What are the components of the muscular sling for the pectoral girdle in mammals?
trapezius, rhomboideus, serratus ventralis, and pectoralis
Why is there no muscular sling for the pelvic gridle?
The pelvic girdle is directly attached to the vertebrate column
Gas exchange between blood and the deep body tissues is called _______.
Internal respiration
Internal respiration provides oxygen for ________ processes.
metabolic
Gas exchange (oxygen and carbon dioxide) between the environment and the blood via the respiratory surface is called ________.
External respiration
External gills arise in what region?
branchial region
What do external gills arise as?
filamentous capillary beds that protrude into the surrounding water
How are external gill slits functional
- In water with a current, water flows across their projecting surfaces to ventilate
- In still water, specialized muscles sweep them back and forth to ventilate them
Where do exeternal gills receive blood supply from
aortic arch
Enlaged capillary beds covered with skin, that protrude from the branchial region of an animal and are not connected to branchial arches are called ___________.
External gills
This type of gill is associated with the pharyngeal arches and pouches.
Internal gills
The interbranchial septum and the operculum cover these.
Internal gills
Internal gills receive their blood supply from _________.
branchial arteries
What are internal gills derived from?
aortic arch
These have 2 stacks of gill filaments that may be seperacted by a septum that extends from the branchial arch.
Internal gills
In this type of gills, ventilation involves a muscular pump of the buccal cavity actively driving water across.
Internal gills
Gill filaments on posterior and anterior sides are called ______.
Primary lamellae
Surface projections on the primary lamellae that contain the respiratory capillary beds are called _________.
Secondary lamellae
What are the characteristics of secondary lamellae?
numerous, tiny and platelike
If lamellae on both anterior and posterior faces of the interbranchial septum it is a ________.
Holobranch
A gill arch with lamellae on only one face of the interbranchial septum is a _______.
hemibranch
Has a single stack of gill filaments in its internal gills.
hemibranch
This is a skin fold that protects the internal gills and extends from the branchial arch to seperate the two hemibranch.
Interbranchial septum
A _____ is a ventral invagination of the endoderm that forms paired elastic bags withing the body that are designed for breathing.
Lung
In this breathing structurem sacks are paired with a common stalk (trachea and bronchii).
Lung
In this type of respiration, gas exchange occurs directly between the blood and the environment via the skin.
cutaneous respiration
The total volume inhaled in one breath is called the _______.
tidal volume
Lung ventilation that is bidirectional with air entering and exiting through the same channels is called ________.
tidal ventilation
In this type of ventilation, water enters the buccal cavity through the mouth, passes across the gill curtain, and then exits flowing one direction only.
one-way or flow through ventilation
A single elongated sac located dorsal to the digestive tract is called a _______.
Gas bladder
How is a gas bladder filled?
- with air that enters via the pneumatic duct or
- with gas secreted from the blood
When the gas bladder is used primarily to control the buoyancy of the fush in the vertical water column it is called a ___________.
Swim bladder
How does the swim bladder form?
It is a single evagination of the gut tube, usually mid-dorsal
A tubular connection that connects the swim bladder to the pharynx is called a ______.
Pnuematic duct
When a fish remains in the same location in the water without rising or falling it is at ___________.
neutral bouyancy
An accessory breathing organ that retains the pnuematic duct is called a _________.
Physostomous
This type of swim bladder is no longer used for respiration and has lost the connection to the pneumatic duct.
Physocliitus
The chamber where the pharyngeal slits open is called the ____________.
branchial pouches
A tiny respiratory compartment within the lung that opens to a central air chamber and results from the lung lining is called a __________.
Faveoli
A tiny, one-way passageway that permits air to flow through the lungs is called a ___________.
parabronchi
The smallest subdivision of respiratory tissue in mammalian lungs that are located at the ends of the branching respiratory tree are called _________.
Alveoli
Compartments which characterize the respiratory bronchioles into air sacs are called ________.
alveoli
This is a thin sheet that connects the diaphragmatic muscles to the posterior side of the liver.
Posthepatic septum
This is a muscular pumping mechanisms that changes the shape of the rib cage to create a pistonlike action.
diaphragm
Describe how the contraction and relaxation of the diaphragm aids in ventilation.
- When is contracts, it flattens, letting air in by creating a vacuum in the lungs
- When it relaxes, it rounds to expel the air from the lungs
This type of ventilation uses two pumps in tandem to drive water in a nearly continuous unidirectional flow across the gill curtain between them.
Dual pump ventilation
What are the two pumps that function in dual pump ventilation?
buccal pump and opercular pump
In this type of ventilation, the fish swims with the mouth open because they have lost the necessary musculature for the dual pump.
Ram jet ventilation
What type of ventilation requires continuous swimming for ventilation?
Ram jet ventilation
This type of ventilation emploes the mouth cavity, which expands to fill with fresh aire and then compresses to pump this air into the lungs.
Gulp/Pressure or pulse pump ventilation
In this type of ventilation, air is suck in by low pressure created aroung the lungs.
Aspiration pump ventilation
In this type of ventilation, lungs are surrounded by moveable structures such as muscle sheets, ribs and a sternum that the surface of the lungs adheres to.
Aspiration pump ventilation
How does the air move in aspiration pump ventilation?
bi-directional and moves air tidally
In this type of gas exchange, the flow of adjacent current of blood and gases occurs in opposite directions.
Countercurrent gas exhange
In this type of gas exchange, the flow of adjacent currents of blood and gases occurs in perpendicular directions.
Crosscurrent gas exchange
In this type of gas exchange, a large pool of gases crosses a current of blood.
Uniform pool gas exchange
What is the difference between oxygen concentration in water and air?
Water - 0-.9 - varies with Temp
Air - 21% at sea level
What is the difference in the density/viscosity of water verus air?
Water - 1000x that of air; depends on Temp
Air - very light
What is the difference in the rate of diffusion of water versus air?
Water - slow
Air - fast
What is the difference in the metabolic expense in air vesus in water?
Water - 20%
Air - 2%
What is the difference in respiratory structure in water versus air?
Water - gills
Air - lungs
Which type of respiratory structure is better suited for water?
Gills b/c they are unidirectional; would take too much energy for bidirectional method in water
Which respiratory structure is better suited for air? Why?
Lungs; because air is light and lungs allow for bidirectional flow
What are the major factors that influence the rate of passive diffusion?
gradient, surface area, distance, and barriers
Describe the structure of lungs.
- Ventral invagination of endoderm
- Sacs are paired with common stalk
- dead air space
How do lungs differ from gills?
they use air instead of water and are bidirectional
Describe the structure and function of air bladders in Actinopterygian fishes.
- made from a single evagination of the gut tube
- usually mid-dorsal
- used to control the buoyancy of the fish in the vertical water column
- accessory breathing organ which can be used for hearing and sound production
How does the presence of a pnuematic duct influence the function of the air bladder?
W/O pneumatic duct, the bladder cannot be used as an accessory breathing organ
Describe the dual pump ventilation in water-breathing fishes.
- Two pumps in tandem - buccal and opercular
- pumps work in synchronous pattern to drive water in a nearly continuous, unidirectional flow across the gill curtain between them
- 1st stroke in suction phase caused by the low pressure
- 2nd stroke is the force stroke - caused by a raise in pressure of both cavities
Describe the pulse pump ventilation in air breathing fishes and amphibians.
- Use buccal or pulse pump
- mouth expands to fill with air and then when they close their mouth, the air is pushed into the lungs
- fish use both dual pump and pulse pump
- pulse pump is bidirectional
Describe the aspiration pump ventilation in amniotes.
- air is sucked into the lungs by low pressure created around the lung
- includes rib cage and diaphragm which causes pressure changes
- feedding and breathing are decoupled which allows oppurtunity for further diversification of the two systems independently
Describe the gill morphology of the lamprey.
- contain gills in branchial pouch
- water enters and leaves through the pharyngeal gill slits; tidal flow
Describe the gill morphology of the chondrichthyan.
- may have lost their lungs secondarily
- have gills with complete interbranchial septum
- distal end contains a flap for pressure
- some use RamJet ventilation; have to swim with mouth open
- many have lost their branchial musculature necessary for dual pump so they must swim continuously
Describe the gill morphology of the actinopterygians.
- have gills that are covered by operculum
- use dual pump system
- have swim bladders that can act as accessory breathing organs
What structures or muscles are involved in ventilation in crocodilians?
- liver moves up and down to push air in and out of the lungs
- have diaphragmatic muscles
What structures or muscles are involved in ventilation in turtles?
- lungs are pushed up against the carapace and therefore they are unable to use their rib cage for ventilation because it is fixed
- do not have diaphragm
- sheets of muscles that contract and relax force air in and out of the lungs and air pressure can be altered by moving lungs in and out of the shell
What structures or muscles are involved in ventilation in mammals
- diaphragm that is dome-shaped below the lungs
- depression and elevation of diaphragm allows lungs to expand and contract
Describe the bird lung.
- specialized
- one way flow of air
- ribs hinged to create the force on the lungs
- use crosscurrent system for gas exchange
Why are bird lungs more efficient at extracting oxygen than lungs of other tetrapods?
high demand of oxygen for flight
Digestion of food by enzymes secreted by salivary glands is called _________.
chemical digestion
This form of digestion involeves the chewing of food with teeth and the churning of the digestive tract to break up food.
mechical digestion
What is the function of mechanical digestion?
breaks up food to increase the surface area available for chemical digestion by enzymes
The cavity that contains teeth, tongue, and palate is called the _______.
Mouth, oral, or buccal cavity
Oral glands empty into the ______.
Buccal cavity (or oral cavity or mouth)
This structure is the passageway to the esophagus and is the entrance for food and air.
Pharynx
The alimentary canal is composed of the _________, _________, _________, and ______.
esophagus, stomach, intestines, and clocoa
Name the 4 layers that compose the alimentary canal.
1) Mucosa
2) Submucosa
3) Muscularis externa
4) Adventitia or serosa
In this canal, food is broken down, absorbed, and waste is eliminated.
Alimentary canal
The terminal chamber for recycling fecal materials is called the _______.
anus
Progressive waves of muscle contractions within the walls of the digestive tract are _____________.
peristalsis
Peristalsis uses alternating conditions of these two layers.
Circular and longitudinal layers
What is the function of peristalsis?
force to move food along digestive tract
This substance is the hardest substance in the vertebrate body and is found in teeth.
Enamel
Enamel is of what origin?
epidermal
This is this innermost layer of the alimentary canal.
Mucosa
This layer of the alimentary canal include the epithelium that lines the lumen, the thin smmoth muscle fibers of the muscularis mucosae, and the region of loose connective tissue.
Mucosa
This layer is the smooth muscle layer of the mucosa and has inner circular and out longitudinal layers.
Muscularis interna
This is the second layer of the alimentary canal.
Submucosa
This layer of the alimentary canal consist of loose connective tisse and nerve plexes of the autonomic nervous system.
submucosa
This is the third layer of the alimentary canal.
Muscularis externa
This layer of the alimentary canal has smooth muscle with a circular (inner) layer and a longitudinal (outer) layer.
Muscularis externa
This is the surface layer of the alimentary canal.
Adventitia or serosa
This layer of the alimentary canal has fibrous connective tissue with mesentery covering in the peritoneal cavity.
Adventitia or serosa
Folds of the stomach that occur when the stomach is not distended with food and the wall relaxes are called ______.
Rugae
Fingerlike projections that project from the epithelial cells into the lumen are called _______.
Microvilli
What is the function of microvilli?
increases the absorptive surface of the alimentary canal
This type of intestine slows the passage of food to increase the time of digestion.
Spiral valve intestine
The ____ is a baglike expansion of the esophagus often used to store food temporarily during processing.
crop
A blind-ended outpocketing from the intestines through which food circulates as part of the digestive process is call the ________.
Cecum
A blind pouch that serves in digestion and absorption an dmay house bacteria for fermentation is called a _____.
Diverticulum
A ______ is an especillay well muscularized region of the stomach used to grind hard foods.
Gizzard
This is a muscular tube that connects the pharynx to the stomach
esophagus
Name the properties of the esophagus.
ciliated
stratified squamous epithelium
keratinized
The enlarged region of the alimentary canal that serves for storage, digestion and absorption is call the ______.
Stomach
What are the 3 layes of the muscular externa in the stomach
1. oblique
2. circular
3. longitudinal (will rugae folds)
This is a tube in the digestive tract that contains villi and in absorption.
Small intestine
This is a straight tube that passes into the anus and does not have villi.
Large intestine
A duct formed of cells of the epithelium that secrete mucus and serous fluid is called _________.
oral gland
The 2nd largest organ in humans is the _______.
Liver
This digestive organ is involved in the production and destruction of blood cells, a well as works to detoxify and remove toxic substance from the blood.
Liver
This organ manufactures bile and stores and metabolizes carbohydrates, proteins, and fats.
Liver
The liver stores and metabolizes ________, ________, and ________.
Carbohydrates, proteins, and fats
This organ serves as both and endocrine and exocrine gland.
pancreas
This organ secretes the horomones trypsin, insulin, and glucagon.
Pancreas
The system that includes the blood heart and vessels is called the ________ system.
Circulatory
__________ serves a transport medium
Blood
What are the 3 types/parts of blood and give a description of each.
- Connective tissue - highly specialized
- Liquid matrix - plasma
- Cells - erythrocytes, leucocytes, and platlets
This type cell defends the body from infection.
leucocytes
This is the name for the red blood cells.
Erythrocytes
Do red blood cells (erythrocytes) have nuclei?
Yes, in all but mammals
This type of cell releases factors that produce a cascade of chemical events leading to the formation of a clot.
Platelets
This innermost layer of blood vessels surrounds the lumen and is composed of very thin sqamous cells.
Tunica interna/intima
This middle layer of the blood vessels is composed of smooth muscle and sometimes has elastic fibers.
Tunica media
This outer layer of the blood vessels is composed of fibrous connective tissue.
Tunica externa/adventitia
These provide the passageway for blood.
Vessels.
These carry blood away from the heart.
Arteries
These transport blood towards the heart.
Veins
These serve for exchange of gases in tissues.
capillaries
These are vessels that shunt blood flow.
metarteriole
This is the artery that carries blood from the heart to the lung.
Pulmonary artery
The ________ vein carries clood aways from the lung back to the heart.
Pulmonary vein
This type of muscle is striated and has 1-2 nuclei in each cell/fiber.
Cardiac muscle
How are adjacent cells of cardiac muscle connected?
gap junctions
_________ _____ join cardiac muscle together to form sheets.
Intercalated discs
When a muscle cell initiate depolarization and contraction without nerve input, it is considered ______.
myogenic
___________ refers to the rate of contraction of a muscle cell being determined by the muscle cells themselves.
Autorhythmic
This part of the heart structure is the endothelium adjacent to the lumen and underlying the connective tissue.
Endocardium
This cadiac muscle is the connective tissue "skeleton" to which bindles of cardiac muscles attach.
Myocardium
This is the thin convering that is continuous with the parietal pericardium that forms the inner lining of the pericardial cavity.
Visceral pericardium
This is the tissue that forms the lining of the pericardial cavity.
Parietal pericardium
This is the cavity in which the heart lies.
Pericardial cavity
The pericardial cavity is lined by ________.
epithelial membrane
What is the importance of the pericardial cavity?
- isolate the heart from surrounding tissues
- allows for the mechanical and electrochemical isolation of the heart
This node is where cells that set the pace for the contraction of the heart are located.
Sinoatrial node
The heart contraction begins in the _____________.
sinoatrial node
A econd node present only in mammals that constists of Purkinje fibers is called the ____________.
Atrioventricular node
These fivers are neuronlike fiber that are modifeid cardiac muscle.
Purkinje fibers
This is the most cranial chamber of the heart.
Conus arteriosus
What does the conus arteriosus arise from?
Bulbus cordis
Conus arteriosus contains various numbers of _____ valves.
Conal
The anterior chamber of the heart in teleosts that has a thin wall with smooth muscle and no cardiac muscle is known as _________.
Bulbus arteriosus
This is the 2nd chamber of the heart to receive blood.
Atrium
This is the 3rd chamber of the heart to receive blood
Ventricle
This is the first of the four chambers of the heart to recieve blood.
Sinus venosus
The ___________ septum divides the ventrical partially.
Interventricular
In hagfish, the _______ heart is homologous to the heart of other vertebrates but has no conus arteriosus.
Branchial
In hagfishes, the _____ heart is a single, expanded vascular sac that receives blood from one anterior and one posterior cardinal vein, and then contracts to drive blood through the liver.
Portal heart
In hagfish, the ________ hearts are paired hearts located in the tail which pump blood in the caudal vein.
Caudal hearts