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94 Cards in this Set

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Dorsal aorta (paired)
Carries oxygenated blood from the aortic arches.
Dorsal aorta (single)
Distributes blood to the posterior part of the body and eventually extends into the tail as the caudal artery.
Aortic arches
vessels braching off ventral aorta which pass dorsally within the branchial arches between pharyngeal slits.
Ventral aorta
vessel leaving conus arteriosus (ventricle in hagfish). First thing blood enters when leaving heart and course foward below the pharynx.
Internal carotids
sprouts from anterior end of the dorsal aorta and carries blood forward into the head and usually penetrate the braincase to supply the brain.
External carotids
divides the anterior ventral aorta and carries blood into the ventral region of the head.
Pulmonary artery
carries blood from the heart to the lungs. They are the only arteries that carry deoxygenated blood.
Pulmonary vein
carries oxygenated blood from the lungs to the left atrium of the heart. They are the only veins in the post-fetal human body that carries oxygenated blood.
Ductus arteriosus
Connects the most posterior aortic arch (gives rise to the pulmonary artery) to the dorsal aorta.
Systemic arches (IV)
Left systemic arch consists of left aortic arch and the curved section of the left dorsal aorta. Right systemic arch includes the same components on the right side of the body. Two systemic arches unite behind hte heart to form the common dorsal aorta
Subintestinal veins
upaired vessel originating in the caudal vein. Loops around the anus and extends forward, running along the ventral wall of the intestine from which it collects blood.
Hepatic portal vein
Collects blood from the intestines, stomach, pancreas, and spleen and delivers it to the vascular sinusoids within the liver. Transports nutrients directly from the digestive tract to the liver for storage or processing of many end products of digestion.
(posterior vena cava) drains the posterior part of the body
Renal portal system
Transports blood returning from capillary beds within the tail or hindlimbs through the renal portal veins. Function not well understood, suggested to have direct route for delivering metabolic by-products to the kidneys that result from active locomotion involving the caudal musculature or a way to improve kidney filtration.
Renal portal vein
A part of the renal portal system; empties blood into capillaries within the kidneys.
Common cardinal vein
major vein that receives blood returning from the anterior cardinal vein and the posterior cardinal vein.
Anterior cardinal vein
Drains the anterior region of the body.
Posterior cardinal vein
Drains the posterior region of the body.
Subcardinal vein
Arise ventral to the kidneys, drain them, and run forward to empty into the posterior cardinal vein.
Lateral abdominal vein
Empties blood from veins from the lateral body wall and posterior appendage into the common cardinal vein.
Ventral abdominal vein
In amphibians, left and right lateral abdominal veins may unite into this single median vein, which runs along the floor of the body coelom.
Inferior jugular vein
Drains head along with anterior cardinal veins; joins the common cardinal veins just before they empty into the sinus venosus of the heart. (in fishes)
Internal jugular vein
Derived from the anterior cardinal; works with external jugular vein and lingual vein (from tongue) to return blood from the head.
External jugular vein
Works with internal jugular vein and lingual vein to return blood from the head.
Functional unit of kidney; unique to vertebrates. Adult kidney has thousands to millions nephrons in each kidney. Forms urine.
Anterior part forms the paired nephrotome which is often segmented; eventually becomes the nephric tubule. Posterior part forms the nephric ridge which is not segmented and protrudes slightly from the dorsal wall of the body cavity.
Outgrowth of vessels from dorsal aorta; high pressure. Arterial vessels at both ends.
Renal capsule (Bowman's capsule)
Surrounds wall of glomerulus; collects filtrate. With the glomerulus, considered the first part of the nephron.
Renal tubule
2nd part of the nephron; has regional differentiation, selective absorption and secretion. Mammals have the Loop of Henle to concentrate urine.
Collecting duct
Part of the uriniferous tubule. Affects the concentration of urine and conveys it to the minor calyx, the beginning of the excretory duct.
Most anterior (1-12 pairs of nephrotomes); first to develop; gives rise to “pronephric” duct that induces development of posterior tubules; duct develops even if tubules degenerate; found in all vertebrates (at least in rudimentary form).
Arise in middle of nephric ridge. Do not produce a new duct but instead taps into the preexisting pronephric duct; duct is renamed the “mesonephric: duct; usually becomes functional in embryo
Formation of metanephric duct appears as ureteric diverticulum arising at the base of the preexisting mesonephric duct. Grows dorsally into the posterior region of the nephric ridge. Becomes the adult kidney of amniotes and the metanephric duct is usually called the ureter.
Pronephric duct
Usually persists and drains the mesonephros or extended opisthonephros. In some males, this duct transports sperm and is called the vas deferens; in females, the wolffian duct. Most general term is archinephric duct.
Extended mesonephric kidney with additional posterior tubules is termed the opisthonephros (found only in adult fishes and mammals).
Also known as the metanephric duct. Goes from the kidney to the urinary bladder.
Indifferent gonad
Gonad shows neither male nor female characters during embryonic development.
Cortex (of indifferent gonad)
Residence of germ cells (in females). Thick outer layer of gonad.
Medulla (of indifferent gonad)
Residence of germ cells (in males); develops into the seminiferous tube. Deeper layer of gonad.
female gonad; produces both hormones and mature ova.
; paired; two functions: sperm production and hormonal secretion. Hormones of the testes are steroids collectively called the androgens.
Nervous system cell. Specialized for long-distance transmission of electrical stimuli throughout the body. Structural and functional unit of the nervous system. Consists of the nerve cell body and thin cell processes called nerve fibers.
nervous system cell. Do not transmit impulses; they support, nourish, and insulate neurons. Bind together nervous tissue and can be specialized. Swann cells wrap around axons to form myelin sheath. Increases speed of action potential.
One of the nerve processes. Usually one per neuron. Carry impulses AWAY from the nerve cell body of the neuron.
One of the nerve processes. Usually one or many dendrites per neuron. Transmit incoming electrical impulses toward the nerve cell body of the neuron.
Synaptic bulb
a part of the axon. Holds neurotransmitters.
When action potential reaches synaptic bulb, causes release of neurotransmitters. Diffuse across synaptic cleft and stimulate membrane of next neuron. Site of action; gaps between junctions of neurons.
Has many processes associated with the cell body. Efferent or motor information.
Have a single stem that divides into a dendrite and axon. General Sensory.
Have two processes, usually at opposite ends. Special sensory; cells found in retina, olfactory.
Somatic information pathway
Target organ: sense organs in skin, tendons of skeletal muscle, skeletal muscle
Visceral information pathway
Target organ: Sense organs in walls of viscera (e.g. stretch receptors); smooth muscle in viscera.
Sensory (afferent) information pathway
Nerves carrying information from tissues to the central nervous system.
Motor (efferent) information pathway
: Nerves carrying information away from the CNS to effectors.
Central nervous system
Brain and spinal cord. Bundles of axons within CNS structures = tracts. Grouping of cell bodies = tract. Covred with meninges. Connective tissue membrane(s) partly derived from neural crest.
Peripheral nervous system
Nerves and ganglia to/from organs. Serve either somatic or visceral tissues and carry sensory or motor information.
Tripartite brain
Vertebrate brain; forms initially as three enlarged areas.
Ventricles of the brain (lateral, third, fourth)
Enlarged spaces in brain. Lateral has 2.
Cerebral aqueduct
Surrounded by the midbrain; not a ventrical. Tectum-floor; tegmentum-floor.
Wraps the brain and spinal cord; derived from in part from neural crest. In mammals, there are 3 layers: dura mater (tough outermost), arachnoid (weblike), pia mater (innermost with blood vessels).
Primary meninx
(primitive) In fishes; meninges consist of a single membrane; wrapped around brain and spinal cord.
Secondary meninx
In amphibians, reptiles, and birds, the meninges include a thick outer dura mater derived from mesoderm and a thin inner secondary meninx. Cerebrospinal fluid circulates more effectively. In mammals, secondary meninx yields both the arachnoid and pia mater from ectomesoderm.
Dura mater
tough outermost layer of meninx
middle weblike layer of meninx (only in mammals)
Pia mater
innermost layer with blood vessels of meninx (only in mammals)
Divided into Telencephalon and Diencephalon. Gives rise to the forebrain.
Gives rise to midbrain
Divided into Cerebellum, Pons (mammals), and Medulla. Gives rise to hindbrain.
Anterior region of brain. Sensory input from “lower” brain centers; integration; initiates descending information. Also called cerebrum or cerebral hemispheres (2 sides); surround lateral ventricles; includes olfactory bulbs. Relative size varies. 2 major regions: Pallium (medial, dorsal, lateral) and Subpallium (striatum, septum).
Cerebrum/cerebral hemispheres
known as Telencephalon.
Pallium (medial, dorsal, lateral)
Actinopterygians-eversion of pallium; all other vertebrates- inversion. Relative sizes of pallial regions: lateral pallium (birds); dorsal pallium (mammals)
has two subdivisions: striatum and septum. Below the pallium. A part of the Telencephalon.
Dorsal ventricular ridge
Believed to be derived from the lateral pallium (in birds, expands further). Dominates the central region of the cerebral hemisphere. Accounts for much of the relative increase in size of the cerebral hemispheres and crowds the lateral ventricle into a slit.
Surrounds third ventricle. Source of the thalamus. Includes 4 regions: epithalamus, hypothalamus, ventral thalamus, and dorsal thalamus.
Pineal gland. Non-amniotes: pigmentation; amniotes: biorhythms.
Lateral walls of diencephalon. Dorsal and ventral. Dorsal: major sensory area; input from all senses except olfactory; integration; relay to cerebrum.
Floor of diencephalons. Homeostasis of temperature, water balance, appetite, blood pressure, sexual behavior, and reproductive cycle, etc.
Mesencephalon. Surrounds cerebral aqueduct (not a ventricle).
Roof of midbrain. Sensory input. Optic tectum-vision. Torus semicularis- auditory and lateral line. May be largest area of brain in fishes and amphibians.
Floor of midbrain. Origin of motor information; oculomotor nerve (III); Trochlear nerve (IV), both of which control eye muscles.
Rhombencephalon. Surrounds fourth ventricle. Two subregions- Metencephalon (cerebellum, pons(mammals)) and Mylencephalon (Medulla oblongata).
Origins of cranial nerves (Sharks V-X; mammals VII-XII). Ascending and descending pathways. Vital reflex centers (respiration, heartbeat, intestinal motility, etc.)
Only in mammals. Region of hindbrain consisting of enlarged pontine nuclei that convey information from cerebrum to cerebellum.
Receives sensory and motor information from higher brain centers. Maintains positional equilibrium (muscle tone and balance) and refines motor action (does not initiate it). Variation in size relates to locomotion. May be enlarged hemispheres in birds and mammals.
Cranial nerve
Pairs of nerves connected to brain. Traditionally indicated by roman numerals (I-X or XII), anterior to posterior. Terminalis nerve (in all gnathostomes except birds) anterior to all tradinally numbered nerves- indicated by 0. Numbers vary: fishes and some amphibians: 0-X + up to 6 pairs of unnumbered laeral line nerves. Amniotes: 13 pairs (counting terminalis).
Spinal nerve
Connected to spinal cord. One pair/embryonic segment. Relationships to adjacent somites- myotomes, dermatomes.
Dorsal root of spinal nerve
information (both somatic and visceral); cell bodies of unipolar neurons in dorsal root ganglion; synapses in dorsal horn of spinal cord; each neuron extends the entire distance from source organ to spinal cord.
Ventral root of spinal nerve
somatic and visceral motor information in ventral root; cell bodies of multipolar neurons in ventral horn of spinal cord; each neuron extends entire distance from spinal cord to target organ (skeletal muscle).
sympathetic system
Paravertebral and Prevertebral ganglia;short length of preganlionic neuron; terminal neurotransmitter-epinephrine; extend of effect – widespread; nerves- thoraco-lumbar spinal nerves.
parasympathetic system
Visceral ganglia; long length of preganlionic neuron; terminal neurotransmitter- acetylcholine; extent of effect- organ specific, no innervation to skin; nerves- cranial and sacral spinal nerves.
Autonomic nervous system
Involuntary. Pathways differ from other information types; 2 neurons from spinal cord to target organ, synapse in autonomic ganglia; 2 divisions of autonomic information system- sympathetic and parasympathetic, visceral organs (except skin)-dual innervation with opposite effects.
Paravertebral ganglion
Sympathetic chain of ganglia; a paired series of linked ganglia adjacent to the vertebral column or notochord.
Pervertebral ganglion
Collateral ganglia; formed by other peripheral ganglia- paired cervicle, celiac, and mesenteric ganglia.
Terminal ganglion
Parasympathetic chain of ganglia; lie near or within the organs they innervate.