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30 Cards in this Set

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What are the three basic components of the head skeleton of vertebrates?
Neurocranium, dermatocranium, and splanchnocranium
This is the primary protective encasement of the brain. It is evolutionary the oldest and forms a cartilage "box" enveloping the brain. This structure is perforated with foramina for the passage of nerves and blood vessels, inludes capsules which wholly or partially envelope major sense organs.
The neurocranium
In chondrichthys this basic component of the head skeleton remains cartilage throughout the life of the animal and is also termed the ___________
chondrocranium
In many vertebrates parts of the neurocranium become ossified to form some of the skull bones. This type of ossification is known as
endochondral ossification
Beneath the developing brain, centers of __________ contribute to the development of a pair of parachordal cartilage and a pair of prechordal cartilage plates
chondrification
The parachordals expand and unite to form the floor of the neurocranium or the _______ ______
basal plate
The prechordals expand and unite to form the _______ ______
ethmoid plate
What is a fenestra ?
A window which loooks like a large foramen
A fenestra remains through which the hypophysis protrudes, the ______ _______, and which allows the passage of the internal carotid arteries to supply the brain
hypophyseal finestra
The development of a tectum refers to a _____
roof
_________ retain only an incomplete neurocranium which is lacking in a cartilagenous roof
cyclostomes
Chondrichthys possess a well developed neurocranium called the ______
chondrocranium
The hypophyseal fenestra separates into two foramina for the passage of the internal carotids and the hypophysis rests instead in a cartilagenous depression called the ______ _____
sella turcica
On the roof of the chondrocranium are two foramina for the _________ and ________ ducts. These ducts enable the inner ear cavity and vestibular apparatus to be in communication with the outside water
perilymphatic and endolymphatic
Two articular surfaces for the attachment to the vertebral column. These are known as the ______ _______
occipital condyles
A number of centers of ossification appear in the neurocranium, and will become bones by means of ________ _________
endochondral ossification
There are four regions where ossification occurs which are:
Occipital
Sphenoid
Ethmoid
Otic
The occipital area of the neurocranium below, lateral to , and above the foramen magnum ossifies as the _______, ________, ________
basioccipital
exoccipital
and supraoccipital
What 3 ossification locations make up the floor of the skull? back to front
basioccipital, basisphenoid, and presphenoid
Where are the ossification locations of the otic capsule?
prootic, opisthotic, and epiotic
in birds and mammals the ossification locations of the otic capsule fuse with each other as ossification proceeds to form a single periotic bone known as _______
petrosal
The bones of they dermatocranium phylogenetically originated in the _____ and are derived from the ______ ______
dermis; integumentary system
What are the four regions into which the dermatocranium is divided into?
Roofing bones
upper jaw
primary palatal
opercular
What are the roofing bones from front to back?
nasals, frontals, parietals, and post parietals.
Roofing bones and the ring of dermal bones, in counter-clockwise fashion for the right eye...
lacrimal, prefrontal, postfrontal, postorbital and infraorbital
Posterior to the ring of bones encircling the orbit are the .... Ventral to this chain of dermal bones is the ________ bone and the _________
intertemporal, supratemporal and tabular bones; squamosal bone and quadratojugal bone
The upper portion of the mandibular arch is called the _______
palatoquadrate bone
The primary _______ is the roof of the mouth and the roof of the nasopharynx.
Palate
_____ bones developes as a membranous outgrowth of the second girll arch (hyoid arch)
opercular
What are the three opercular bones in osteicthys?
opercular-- largest
preopercular
interopercular