Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

59 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What are the functions of the kidneys?
Remove waste, maintain acid-base balance & water-electrolyte balance; keep proteins, electrolytes, water & glucose.
What does the proximal convoluted tubule do?
Reabsorption of fluids & electrolytes start here.
What does the glomerulus do?
Where the formation of urine begins, a cluster of capillaries.
What do the collecting tubules do?
It's where the final concentration of urine is.
What does the Bowmans (glomerular) capsule do?
It's an ultra filter, blood passes through & is filtered - proteins & fats are removed by the semipermeable membrane.
What do the ureters do?
They are the tubes that carry urine from the kidney to the bladder.
What does the bladder do?
It's a storage place for urine until it's expelled from the body.
What does the distal convoluted tubule do?
It's where acid/base balance occurs - the final resbsorption of sodium occurs here.
What does the urethra do?
It's the tube that transports urine from the bladder to outside the body.
What does the loop of henle do?
It reduces the volume of urine while absorbing sodium & chloride.
Which chemical property helps to identify crystals in the sediment?
What is myoglobin in the urine signify?
Muscle damage
Bilirubin in the blood gives information regarding the function of which organ?
What can happen to a urine sample if left out overnight?
Increase pH, RBCs will disintegrate, Glucose decreases.
What time of day is a urine specimen best taken at?
Early morning
What is cystitis?
Lower urinary tract infection.
What is pyelonephritis?
Upper urinary tract infection.
What crystal has a coffin lid appearance?
Triple phosphate
What are 6 acidic crystals?
Amorphous urates, calcium oxalate, uric acid, tyrosine, leucine, cystine.
What are 4 alkaline crystals?
Amorphous phosphates, triple phosphates, ammonium biurates, calcium carbonate.
Which crystal has a thorny apple appearance?
Ammonium biurate.
What power do you use to look for RBCs in urine?
High power.
Do you use high or low light when examining urine?
What 3 types of epithelial cells can be seen in urine?
Squamous, transitional and renal.
Casts & bacteria can help distinguish what?
Upper of lower urinary tract infections.
Are a few hyaline casts normal in urine?
What power do you use to look for casts in urine?
Low power.
Are triple phosphate crystals normal in healthy cats?
What's the most common epithelial cell found in urine?
What do rbcs look like in dilute urine samples?
What do rbcs look like in concentrated urine?
Which type of epithelial cell looks similar to a WBC?
Renal, but they have no granular cytoplasm.
Is it normal to see a small amount of bacteria on a catheriterized sample?
If you find casts in sediment, which organ would it indicate problems with?
How do you report RBCs?
average #/high power field
How do you report WBCs?
average #/high power field
How do you report epithelial cells?
How do you report casts?
average #/lpf
How do you report crystals?
How do you report bacteria?
<1/4 field=small/hpf
~1/2 field=moderate/hpf
entire field=large/hpf
What are the 3 components to a urinalysis?
Physical, Chemical and microscopic.
What are the 6 functions of the kidneys?
Removal of waste products, retention of nutrients, maintain acid base balance, maintain water & electrolyte balance, stimulate RBC production, production of a variety of hormones.
What needs to be on the urine specimen container?
Animals name, date, collection type & time of collection.
In what time frame should a urine specimen be tested within?
1/2 hour, up to 1 hour.
What changes can occur in unpreserved urine?
RBC & WBC disintegrate; casts decompose; glucose, bilirubin, urobilinogen, ketones decrease; pH, bacteria & turbidity increase, the color will change.
What is urine composed of?
96% water, 4% dissolved substances.
What does specific gravity measure?
The density of urine.
What does a dipstick test test for?
pH, protein, glucose, ketones, blood, bilirubin, urobilinogen, nitrite, specific gravity, leukocytes.
What is a normal dog/cat pH?
What is a pH over 7?
What's the confirmatory test for protein?
Extons, or SSA
What's the confirmatory test for glucose?
What's the confirmatory test for ketones?
What's the confirmatory test for bilirubin?
What's the confirmatory test for RBCs?
Microscopic exam.
What's the confirmatory test for WBCs?
Microscopic exam
What's the confirmatory test for specific gravity?
What is pyuria?
WBCs in the urine.
What are 5 different types of casts?
Hyaline, cellular, granular, waxy & fatty.