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107 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What color stopper tube is used for serum?
What type of blood samples can be frozen?
Plasma & serum
What causes serum/plasma to be milky white?
What causes serum/plasma to be pink/red?
Lysed RBCs
What causes serum/plasma to be amber?
What color stoppers do heparinized vacutainer tubes have?
What color stoppers do EDTA vacutainer tubes have?
What's the most commonly used anticoagulant tube used in vet med?
What time frame do you want to evaulate blood morphology in?
Within 3 hours of collection.
What can cause hemolysis of blood?
Freezing the sample, prolonged exposure to heat, forcing sample through small gauge needle.
What do you need to include on a label for blood collection?
Date, patient, owner, source.
What anticoagulant is often used to coat syringes before venipuncture?
How much blood can you take from a healthy animal at one time?
10% of total body weight in kgs
What type of anticoagulant would you want for a CBC?
What are clot tubes used for?
Chemistry panel
What is the non-cellular portion of whole blood after centrifuging?
Plasma (liquid)
What is the non-cellular portion of clotted blood after centrifuging?
What do you need to keep away from blood smears?
What 3 factors can influence your choice of needle size?
Amount of blood needed, the condition of the vessels & the size of the animal.
What should you do if you can't get to a blood sample for a chemistry test right away?
Centrifuge the sample, remove the serum & freeze.
How long is frozen serum/plasma good for?
5-6 weeks
Refrigerated serum/plasma is good for how long?
5-7 days
Room temperature serum/plasma is good for how long?
4-7 hours
What's the least common granulocyte found in the blood?
Allergies and internal parasites are most likely to increase the number of what WBC?
Viral infections can cause which condition?
What is the chief phagocyte in the blood?
What's the most common WBC in the blood of dogs & cats?
Emotional stress and bacterial infections can cause what condition?
What's the largest cell found in the blood and has a lacy appearance?
What 3 things does hemoglobin do?
Carries O2, contains iron, decreases indicate anemia.
What cell produces platelets in mammals?
What species has nucleated RBC's?
What species has azurophils in their blood?
Platelets are called thrombocytes in which species?
What species has the smallest RBC?
What species has a marked rouleaux?
What is a left shift?
More than 5% bands in the differential.
How do you tell the difference between an immature cell from a mature one?
Immatures are bigger than matures.
What is a fragmented RBC called?
What's a spiculated RBC with many uniform evenly spaced projections?
What is a stomatocyte?
An RBC that has a mouth slit like for central pallor, seen in dolphins.
What is basophilic stippling associated with?
Lead poisoning
What's a Howell-jolly body?
A blue, spherical inclusion body in the RBC.
What is a Dohle body?
A light blue body in the cytoplasm of toxic neutrophils
What's a light blue inclusion body that can be due to eating onions?
Heinz body
How would dehydration show up on a PCV?
An increase
What do platelets look like?
They are small pale blue with purple granules in the cytoplasm
What does normal serum/plasma look like?
It's pale yellow or straw colored.
Which colored stopper contains no anticoagulant?
Red or marble top
What tests are normally included in a CBC?
WBC count, Diff, RBC morphology, platelet estimate, PCT or HCT, TPP, Hemoglobin
What power do we use for a WBC estimate?
What power do we use for a platelet estimate?
When should you perform a second differential?
More than 2% baso (D or C), more than 10% monos (D), more than 5% monos (C), more than 10% eos (D or C).
How do you do a WBC estimate?
40X, count 10 fields & get the ave. # of WBC's/ field X 2000. Reported as est. WBC/ul.
What 2 methods are used to get an actual WBC count?
4 or 9 square
What does the PCV (HCT) do?
It measures the % of cells or plasma or serum.
Do you only run one PCV?
No, done in duplicate and must be w/in 2% to be reportable.
How is TP measured?
Using a refractometer.
What would cause an increased TP?
A dehydrated animal.
How do you do a RBC count?
Done like the 4 sq. WBC count, except you count the middle sq. also.
How do you calculate a RBC count?
# of RBC counted within the 5 sq X 10000.
What are normal RBC counts for a dog?
5.5-8.5 (million/ul)
Avg. 6.8
What are normal RBC counts for a cat?
5.5-10 (million/ul)
avg. 7.5
What is a normal PCV for a dog?
37-55 %
Avg. 45.5
What is a normal PCV for a cat?
Avg. 37
What is a normal hemoglobin for a dog?
12-18 g/dl
Avg. 14.9
What is a normal hemoglobin for a cat?
Avg. 12
What is a normal WBC/ul for a dog?
Avg. 11000
What is a normal WBC/ul for a cat?
Avg 12500
What is a normal platelet count for a dog?
2-5 (nX100000/ul)
Avg. 3.4
What is a normal platelet count for a cat?
3-9 (nX 100000/ul)
Avg. 4.5
What is a normal TP for a dog?
4.9-9.0 g/ul
What is a normal TP for a cat?
What is a reticulocyte?
An immature red blood cell, contains granules.
What is an echinocyte?
Scalloped, rounded regularly spaced intervals of projections around the cell membrane, precipation artifact.
What is a Howell-Jolly body?
Round, with a purple staining granule within the cell (left over piece of nucleus).
What is a Heinz Body?
Round, with a purple staining granule on the edge of the cell. Indicative of onion, acetomophine (Tylenol), propelene gylcol toxicity in cats.
What is anemia?
A decrease in the amount of functional hemoglobin - pale centers.
What is anisocytosis?
An increased variation in the size of the RBC, overall too big or too small.
What is poikilocytosis?
An increased variation in the shape of the RBC.
What is polychromasia?
RBC's with a bluish tint - indicative of an immature cell, they should still be in the bone marrow.
What are rouleauxs?
RBC's arragned in a stacked or rolled appearance, common in horses.
What is a leptocyte?
An RBC with a peripheral ring of hemoglobin, a membrane defect - Target cell. Indicative of chronic liver disease.
What's a schistocyte?
Fragmented RBCs, associated with severe burn cases.
What are acanthocytes?
Spiky projections on the RBC, not an artifact. Associated with hepatic lipidosis and liver disease.
What are spherocytes?
RBC with no central pallor, indicative of Autoimmune Hemolytic Anemia (AIHA).
What's a right shift?
More than 5% of neutraphils that are hypersegmented.
What is neutrophilia?
Increase # of neuts - caused by bacterial infection, emotional stimuli & muscular activity.
What is neutropenia?
Decrease # of neuts - caused by severe bacterial infections and viral infections.
What is eosinophilia?
Increase # of eos - caused by allergies & parasites.
What is basophilia?
Increase # of basos - caused by hyperthyroidism & heartworm.
What is lymphocytosis?
Increase # of lymphs - caused by certain cancers, adrenaline & common in young animals.
What is lymphocytopenia?
Decrease # of lymphs - caused by chronic infections & radiation exposure.
What is monocytosis?
Increase # of monos - caused by chronic inflammatory disease & obstructions.
What can cause anemia?
Blood loss, hemorrhage, & parasites.
What is thrombocytosis?
Increase # of thrombocytes - caused by injury & steroids.
What is polycythemia?
Increase # of RBCs - opposite of anemia.
What is agglutination?
Irregularly clumped RBCs.
What is leukocytopenia?
A decrease in th total number of WBCs.
What is missing in a cats RBC?
A central pallor.
What do RBCs do?
They deliver oxygen and remove carbon dioxide.
Platelet estimate formula
Avg # of platelets/10 fields X 15000. 100X
White blood cell estimate formula
Avg # of WBC/10 fields X 2000
Actual WBC count 4 sq.
Avg # of WBC/4sq X 50.
Each sq must be w/in 10, each side must be w/in 20 and end in 00 or 50. 10X
Actual WBC count 9 sq.
Avg# of WBC/9sq X 110.
Each side must be w/in 20 and end in 00 or 50. 10X
How do you do an activated clotting time?
Warm an activated clotting tube. Draw up 2cc of blood & invert 5Xs. Warm up in a 98* water bath, check every 5s. Normal clotting time is btwn 60-90sec.