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55 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Elements of Public Speaking Effectiveness Process Model (6)
1. Audience
2. Context
3. Speaker
4. Speech Planning Process
5. Speech Making Process
6. Speech Effectiveness
Specific group at whom speech is directed

study diverse characteristics & make predictions

nonverbal/verbal cues to indicate reaction
physical, cultural, historical, and psychological (moods, feelings, attitudes & beliefs)
Speech planning process
system to prepare speech: select speech goal, develop adaptation strategy to audience, gather/eval info, organize info, choose visual aids and verbal language and practice
Ethical standards
honesty, integrity, fairness, respect and responsibility
Communication Competence
perception that communication behavior is appropriate and effective
Public speaking apprehension
communication anxiety, stage-fright

about 15% of American experience extreme fear
3 signs of speech apprehension:

Anticipation reaction

Confrontation reaction

Adaptation reaction
level of anxiety experience prior to giving speech

surge in anxiety level as begin speech

gradual decline in anxiety level beginning about 1 min into presentation- back to normal after 5 min
skill deficit theory
most of us become apprehensive b/c don't know how/choose not to prepare effectively
Communication orientation motivation (COM)
techniques to reduce anxiety by helping speaker adopt communication rather than performance

includes: performance orientation & communication orientation
performance orientation

communication orientation
viewing pub speaking as situation demanding special delivery tech. with need for perfection

viewing speech as opportunity to talk to pple
speech goal
statement of what you want you listeners to know, believe, or do

always keep audience in consideration
audience adaptation
presenting ideas verbally, visually, and vocally in a way that will help audience relate to them
4 sub-steps of determining specific speech goal
identifying topics

analyzing audience

understanding speech setting

choose topic and developing specific goal
broad area of expertise: movies, computer technology, Europe
narrow, specific aspect of a subject
uncritical, nonevaluative process of generating associated ideas; list as many ideas possible without evaluating

Audience Analysis
study of intended audience for speech

know demographic information: age, sex, race, religion, etc.
Audience adaptation
process of tailoring information to specific audience
* Credibility *
perception that you are knowledgeable, trustworthy, and personable
location and occasion for a speech
adapting the info in speech so audience members view as important to them
(step 1 to demonstrate relevance)
est. by demonstrating that it is useful to the audience at present/near future
(step 2)
demonstrate by explaining relevance to audience member's personal life
(step 3)
demonstrate topic's personal impact-its potential for serious physical, eco, or psychological impact on audience
information comprehension
adapting information so it is easier for audience members to follow and retain
orientating listener
(1 step)
review basic ideas of speech in effort to facilitate audience understanding
defining key terms
(2 step)
ensure listener comprehension by defining unfamiliar & impt. terms
illustrating new concepts
(3 step)
use vivid examples
*personalizing information*
(4 step)
present info in frame of reference familiar to audience

connect w/audience
Comparing unknown w/familiar
(5 step)
identifying points of comparison between audience and content
*Utilizing multiple methods for development of speech*
(6 step)
use variety of instructional aids (ex. visual aids) to encourage complete audience understanding

need balance of information
common ground
bkgd knowledge, attitudes, experiences, and philosophies shared by audience members
personal pronouns
we, us, our
rhetorical questions
invoke body language response rather than verbal response
draw from common experiences
present personal experiences, examples
confidence that audience places in truthfulness of what speaker says
demonstrate knowledge & expertise
directly- disclosing personal experience with topic

indirectly- delivery preparation
extent to which audience can believe claims
extent to which project agreeable/pleasing personality
i.e. Bill Clinton

audience likes speaker, more likely will believe them

use eye contact & affirmative head nods
initial audience attitudes
take into account audience knowledge and attitude towards a topic
audience analysis
identify attitudes ahead of time
6th level of adaptation
linguistic problems
7th level
forming specific plan of audience adaptation

identify challenges from audience and plan how to meet them
Elements of delivery


Bodily Action

*Eye Contact*
-scaled highness/lowness of sound of voice

- degree of loudness of tone

- speed of talk (anxiety = faster rate

-tone, timbre, or sound of voice
Articulation- use of tongue, palate, teeth, jaw mvnt, & lips to shape sounds to make word

Pronuciation- form & accent of various syllables of a word

Accent- articulation, inflection, tone & speech habits of natives to area
Bodily Action:
nonverbal communication
Facial expressions


Mvnt- motion of entire body

Posture- position of bearing body

assurance of manner

poised speakers learned to control nerves by concentrating on audience communication rather than focus on selves
*Eye Contact*
directly looking

helps audience concentrate and feel confident w/speaker
Types of Speech Delivery (3)
-delivered with sec/min notice, no notes

-read from complete manuscript, read word-for-word

-researched & planned but not scripted, simple notes used and not as lengthy preparation
Preparing best speech notes
contain fewest words possible written in lettering large enough to be seen @ distance
Using visual aids
consider audience needs
3 goals of effective rehearsing
-practice wording ideas for vividness

-practice doing speech

-practice w/visual aids

General Criteria for eval. of speeches
1 content is well organized

2 adapted to audience

3 delivered well