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147 Cards in this Set

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causative factor invading a susceptible host through an environment favorable to produce disease, such as a biological or chemical agent.
agent
a form of epidemiology that investigates causes and associations between factors or events and health.
analytic epidemiology
a type of incidence rate defined as the proportion of persons exposed to an agent who develop the disease, usually for a limited time in a specific population.
attack rate
in determining causality, a systematic error because of the way the study is designed, how it was carried out, or some unplanned events that occurred and affected the study.
bias
an epidemiologic study design in which subjects with a specified disease or condition (cases) and a comparable group without the condition (controls) are enrolled and assessed for the presence or history of an exposure or characteristic.
case-control study
proportion of persons diagnosed with a specific disorder who die within a specified time.
case fatality rate
using statistics to determine if a relationship exists between two or more factors or events.
causality
an epidemiologic study design in which subjects without an outcome of interest are classified according to past or present (or future) exposures or characteristics and followed over time to observe and compare the rates of some health outcome in the various exposure groups.
cohort study
a bias that results from the relation of both the outcome and study factor (exposure or characteristic) with some third factor not accounted.
confounding
an epidemiologic study in which health outcomes and exposures or characteristics of interest are simultaneously ascertained and examined for association in a population or sample, providing a picture of existing levels of all factors.
cross-sectional study
a form of epidemiology that describes a disease according to its person, place, or time.
descriptive epidemiology
factors that influence the risk for or distribution of health outcomes.
determinants
pattern of a health outcome in a population; the frequencies of the outcome according to various personal characteristics, geographical regions, and time.
distribution
all factors internal and external to a client that constitute the context in which the client lives and that influence and are influenced by the host and agent-host interactions.
environment
a rate of disease clearly in excess of the usual or expected frequency in that population.
epidemic
study of the distribution and factors that determine health-related states or events in a population, and the use of this information to control health problems.
epidemiology
human or animal that provides adequate living conditions for any given infectious agent.
host
the proportion of the population at risk who experience the event over some period of time.
incidence proportion
the frequency or rate of new cases of an outcome in a population; provides an estimate of the risk of disease in that population over the period of observation.
incidence rate
a three-level model of interventions based on the stages of disease, designed to halt or reverse the process of pathological change as early as possible, thereby preventing damage.
levels of prevention
course or progression of a disease process from onset to resolution.
natural history of disease
proportion of persons with a negative test who are disease-free.
negative predictive value
a concentration in space and time of a disease event, such that a graph of frequency of cases over time shows a sharp point, usually suggestive of a common exposure.
point epidemic
the proportion of persons with a positive screening or diagnostic test who do have the disease (the proportion of "true positives" among all who test positive).
positive predictive value
a measure of existing disease in a population at a given time.
prevalence proportion
a type of intervention that seeks to promote health and prevent disease from the beginning.
primary prevention
a type of ratio in which the denominator includes the numerator.
proportion
the proportion of all deaths due to a specific cause.
proportionate mortality ratio
a measure of the frequency of a health event in a defined population during a specified period.
rate
the precision of a measuring instrument, which depends on its consistency from one time of use to another and its accuracy.
reliability
the probability of some event or outcome within a specified period.
risk
application of a test to people who are as yet asymptomatic for the purpose of classifying them with respect to their likelihood of having a particular disease.
screening
intervention that seeks to detect disease early in its progression (early pathogenesis) before clinical signs and symptoms become apparent in order to make an early diagnosis and begin treatment.
secondary prevention
long-term patterns of morbidity or mortality (i.e., over years or decades).
secular trends
the extent to which a test identifies those individuals who have the condition being examined.
sensitivity
the extent to which a test identifies those individuals who do not have the disease or condition being examined.
specificity
systematic and ongoing observation and collection of data concerning disease occurrence in order to describe phenomena and detect changes in frequency or distribution.
surveillance
intervention that begins once the disease is obvious; the aim is to interrupt the course of the disease, reduce the amount of disability that might occur, and begin rehabilitation.
tertiary prevention
the accuracy of a test or measurement; how closely it measures what it claims to measure. In a screening test, validity is assessed in terms of the probability of correctly classifying an individual with regard to the disease or outcome of interest, usually in terms of sensitivity and specificity.
validity
complex interrelations of factors interacting with each other to influence the risk for or distribution of health outcomes.
web of causality
a domain of learning that includes changes in attitudes and the development of values.
affective domain
the art and science of teaching adults and individuals with some knowledge about a health-related topic.
andragogy
a theory that approaches the study of learning by concentrating on behaviors that can be observed and measured.
behavioral theory
a domain of learning that includes memory, recognition, understanding, and application and is divided into a hierarchical classification of behaviors.
cognitive domain
a theory that maintains that by changing thought patterns and providing information, learners' behavior will change.
cognitive theory
a theory that approaches learning as an ongoing dialogue. The process of discourse ultimately changes thinking and behavior.
critical theory
a theory that maintains that learning occurs in context with developmental stages. Readiness to learn depends on the individual's developmental stage.
developmental theory
the establishment and arrangement of events to facilitate learning.
education
educational objectives that have been established to improve the health of citizens of the United States.
Healthy People 2010 educational objectives
a theory that describes the influence that feelings, emotions, and personal relationships have on behavior. If people are given free choice, they will do what is best for them.
humanistic theory
the process of gaining knowledge and skills that lead to behavioral changes.
learning
geared toward following and assessing the behavior of an individual, family, community, or population over time.
long-term evaluation
the art and science of teaching children and individuals with little knowledge about a health-related topic.
pedagogy
a domain of learning that includes the performance of skills that require some degree of neuromuscular coordination.
psychomotor domain
focuses on identifying behavioral effects of health education programs and determining whether changes are caused by the educational program.
short-term evaluation
a theory that builds on the principles of behavioral theory by postulating that behavior is a function of an individual's expectations about the value of an outcome or self efficacy. If individuals believe that an outcome is desired and attainable, they are more likely to change their behavior to achieve that goal.
social learning theory
population or defined group.
aggregate
nursing role that facilitates change in client or agency behavior to more readily achieve goals. This role stresses gathering and analyzing facts and implementing programs.
change agent
nursing role that facilitates change in client or agency behavior to more readily achieve goals. This role includes the activities of serving as an enabler-catalyst, teaching problem solving skills, and activist advocate.
change partner
people and the relationships that emerge among them as they develop and use in common some agencies and institutions and a physical environment.
community
process of critically thinking about the community and getting to know and understand the community as a client. Assessments help identify community needs, clarify problems, and identify strengths and resources.
community assessment
meeting collective needs by identifying problems and managing interactions within the community and larger society. The goal of community-oriented practice.
community health
actual or potential difficulties within a target population with identifiable causes and consequences in the environment.
community health problem
resources available to meet a community health need.
community health strength
a clinical approach in which the nurse and community join in partnership and work together for healthful change.
community-oriented practice
collaborative decision-making process participated in by community members and professionals.
community partnership
information kept private, such as between health care provider and client.
confidentiality
collection of gathered and generated data.
database
the process of acquiring existing information or developing new information.
data collection
the process of obtaining existing, readily available data.
data gathering
the development of data, frequently qualitative rather than numerical, by the data collector.
data generation
provision of information through formal means, such as criteria, measurement, and statistics, for making rational judgments necessary about outcomes of care.
evaluation
the end or terminal point toward which intervention efforts are directed.
goals
carrying out a plan that is based on careful assessment of need.
implementation
directed conversation with selected members of a community about community members or groups and events; a direct method of assessment.
informant interviews
the involvement among different groups or organizations within the community that are mutually reliant upon each other.
interdependent
means or strategies by which objectives are achieved and change is effected.
intervention activities
a precise behavioral statement of the achievement that will accomplish partial or total realization of a goal; includes the date by which the achievement is expected to be completed.
objectives
conscious and systematic sharing in the life activities and occasionally in the interests and activities of a group of persons; observational methods of assessment; a direct method of data collection.
participant observation
a relationship between individuals, groups, or organizations in which the parties are working together to achieve a joint goal. Often used synonymously with coalitions and alliances, although partnerships usually have focused goals, such as jointly providing a specific program.
partnership
process of identifying problem correlates and interrelationships and substantiating them with relevant data.
problem analysis
evaluating problems and establishing priorities according to predetermined criteria.
problem prioritizing
analysis using previously gathered data.
secondary analysis
the community.
setting for practice
method of assessment in which data from a sample of persons are reported to the data collector.
surveys
population group for whom healthful change is sought.
target of practice
ideas of life, customs, and ways of behaving that members of a society regard as desirable.
value
a community assessment, the motorized equivalent of a physical assessment for an individual; windshield refers to looking through the car windshield as the nurse in community health drives through the community collecting data.
windshield survey
occurs after a disaster and can include exhaustion and an inability to adjust to post-disaster routines.
delayed stress reaction
human-caused or natural event that causes destruction and devastation that cannot be alleviated without assistance.
disaster
teams of specially trained civilian physicians, nurses, and other health care personnel who are sent to a disaster
disaster medical assistance teams (DMATs)
the 15 functions used in a federally declared disaster; each function is headed by a primary agency.
Emergency Support Functions (ESFs)
destruction or devastation caused by humans.
human-made disaster
actions or measures to prevent a disaster from occurring or to reduce the severity of its effects.
mitigation
used in major disasters; has 15 emergency support functions, each headed by a primary agency.
national response plan (NRP)
destruction or devastation caused by natural events.
natural disaster
advance preparation to cope with a disaster.
preparedness
the last stage in a disaster; when agencies join to restore the economic and civic life of the community.
recovery
organized actions to deal with a disaster.
response
process of separating causalities and allocating treatment based on the victim's potential for survival.
triage
systematic registration of acute, chronic, and contagious diseases.
case register
a summary of the health features of a community that enables us to determine health care delivery needs.
community health index
provision of information through formal means, such as criteria, measurement, and statistics, for making rational judgments about outcomes of care.
evaluation
examination of the level of client and provider satisfaction with a program.
evaluation of program effectiveness
an ongoing evaluation instituted for the purpose of assessing the degree to which objectives are met or activities are being conducted.
formative evaluation
five-step process of formulating a plan, conceptualizing, detailing, evaluating, and implementing.
health program planning
systematic appraisal of type, depth, and scope of problems as perceived by clients, health providers, or both.
needs assessment
a change in client health status as a result of care or program implementation.
outcome
a systematic approach to selecting and carrying out a series of actions to achieve a goal.
planning process
a health care service designed to meet identified health care needs of clients.
program
collection of methods, skills, and activities necessary to determine whether a service is needed, likely to be used, conducted as planned, and actually helps people,
program evaluation
a process by which client needs, specific provider strengths, and agency and community resources are successfully matched to offer a service to the community.
strategic planning
a method used to assess program outcomes or as a follow-up of the results of program activities.
summative evaluation
written or oral statements by which a competent person makes known his or her treatment preferences and/or designates a surrogate decision maker.
advance directives
prejudice toward oIder people, similar to racism or sexism.
ageism
the sum total of all changes that occur in a person with the passing of time.
aging
an intense fear of becoming obese, with disturbance in body image, resulting in strict dieting and excessive weight loss. Occurs most commonly in females between the ages of 12 and 21 but may occur in older women and in men.
anorexia nervosa
the threat or attempt to strike another, aimed at causing fatal or nonfatal injury, whether successful or not, provided the target is aware of the danger.
assaultive violence
inappropriate degree of inattention, impulsiveness, and hyperactivity for age and development.
attention deficit disorder with or without hyperactivity (ADD/ADHD)
basic personal care activities that include eating, toileting, dressing, bathing, transferring, walking, and getting outside.
basic activities of daily living (ADLs)
maintaining optimal functioning, performance, and capacity to do things.
body maintenance
persistent concern with body shape and weight. Recurrent episodes of binge eating followed by extreme methods to prevent weight gain such as purging, fasting, or vigorous exercise.
bulimia
the physical, psychological or emotional, social, and financial problems that can be experienced by those who provide care for impaired others.
caregiver burden
an illness in which a cure is not expected and nursing activities address function, wellness, and psychosocial issues.
chronic illness
a procedure used to assess the condition of the prostate and rectum; generally used for early detection of cancer.
digital rectal examination (DRE)
a legal way for a client to designate someone else to make health care decisions when he or she is unable to do so.
durable power of attorney
five conditions believed to adversely affect the aging experience: intellectual impairment, immobility, instability, incontinence, and iatrogenic drug reactions.
five I's
the study of disease in old age.
geriatrics
the specialty of nursing concerned with assessment of the health and functional status of older adults, planning and implementing health care and services to meet the identified needs, and evaluating the effectiveness of such care.
gerontological nursing
the specialized study of the process of growing old.
gerontology
combination of the effects of homelessness on children resulting in health problems, environmental dangers, and stress.
homeless child syndrome
hormone combination of estrogen and progesterone used for postmenopausal women who have not had a hysterectomy.
hormone replacement therapy (HRT)
a process of protecting an individual from a disease through introduction of a live, killed, or partial component of the invading organism into the individual's system.
immunization
those activities of daily living that help individuals manage their lives, such as cooking, shopping, paying bills, cleaning house, and using the telephone.
instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs)
a document that allows a client to express wishes regarding the use of medical treatments in the event of a terminal illness.
living will
care that is delivered to individuals who depend on others for assistance with basic tasks over a sustained period.
long-term care
permanent cessation of menstruation resulting from loss of ovarian follicular activity.
menopause
failure to act as an ordinary, prudent person; conduct contrary to that of a reasonable person under a specific circumstance.
neglect
condition characterized by increased bone brittleness.
osteoporosis
a law that requires providers who receive Medicare and Medicaid payments to give their clients written information regarding their legal options for treatment choices if they become incapacitated.
Patient Self-Determination Act
the period immediately before menopause when endocrinological, biological, and clinical features of approaching menopause commence, continuing for at least the first year after permanent cessation of menstruation.
perimenopausal
the second most common cancer among men in the United States; sometimes hard to diagnosis because of lack of symptoms.
prostate cancer
infant death for which there is no definite cause.
sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS)
a commonly found solid malignant mass (tumor) that is found in the testicles of men.
testicular cancer
a procedure performed by oneself to assess the condition of the testicles and detect abnormalities.
testicular self-examination (TSE)
types of intellectual impairment: progressive intellectual impairment (dementia); mood disorder (depression), and acute confusion (delirium).
three D's
women's life span that involves health promotion, maintenance, and restoration.
women's health