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28 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
age/generational, disability, religion, ethnicity/race, social status, sexual orientation, indigenous heritage, national origin, gender
Variables used to define cultures
ethnographic variables - i.e. ethinicity, nationality, religion and language. Demographic variables - i.e. age, gender, place of residence. Status variables, i.e. social, economic and educational background
Def. of culture
any group of people who identify or associate with one another on the basis of some common purpose, need, or similarity of background. A culture structures our behaviors, thoughts, perceptions, values, goals, morals, and cognitive processes.
age/generational, disability, religion, ethnicity/race, social status, sexual orientation, indigenous heritage, national origin, gender
Etic perspective vs. Emic perspective
Etic = states that universal qualities exist in counseling that are culturally generalizable. Emic = assumes counseling approaches must be designed to be culturally specific.
1st person to notice unique aspects of counseling people with different cultural backgrounds. Came up with term - culturally ecapsulated counselor
Culturally Encapsulated Counselor
one who disregards cultural differences and works under the mistaken assumption that theories and techniques are equally applicable to all people
the proecess by which a group of people give up old ways to adopt new ones.
Predominant beliefs of European/ N. Americans
the value of individuals, an action oriented approach towards problem solving, the work ethic, the scientific method, and an emphasis on rigid time schedules.
Pederson - believes counselor should be sensitive to cultures in 3 areas.
1. knowlege of the worldviews of culturally different clients. 2. awareness of one's own personal worldview and how one is a product of cultual conditioning, 3. skills neccesary for work with culturally different clients.
Sue - 5 guidelines for effectively counseling across cultures
1. recognize the values/beliefs and integrate it into appropriate feelings and behaviors. 2. aware of cultural and generic qualities of counseling theories and traditions. 3. understand that socio political environment has influenced members of minority groups. 4. counselors are able to share worldviews and not question their legitimacy. 5. be eclect - use a wide variety of counseling skills and apply different techniques when needed.
European Americans
although Euruope is homeland there are lg. differences between the diff. heritages. B/c shared experiences they usually counseling therories that stress their common values. Many like rational/logical methods - cognitive-behavioral approaches may work well
African Americacans
to work with - it is helpful to understand the nature of racism and the fact that individual, institutional and cultiural racism really effect their lives
reluctant to use counsleing experiences - aprt from cultual tradition (pride) and from cultural heritage (reliance on extended family ties). See mental as similar to phsical problems and want counselors to be active, concrete and goal directed.
Asian and Pacific Islander Americans
Historically - much racism and myths regarding them. Religious traditions - islamic, hindu, buddhist. Asians often considerd healthy and the "model minority"
Native Americans
much diversity within, i.e. 149 diff. languages. Typically, they have strong feelings about loss of ancesters land. etc. 4 ideas to be considered when counsling them = silence, acceptance, restatement and general lead. Use of creative arts can be helpful
What to do to help international students?
develop stress managment techniques, learning assertive communication skills, becoming aware of American educational system, developing career and life planning skills
Needs of the aged-- according to Havighurst, older adults must learn to cope with 7 things
1. death of friends/spouses, 2. reduced physical vigor, 3. retirement and reduction of income. 4. more leisure time and process of making new friends, 5. development of new social roles, 6. dealing with grown childern, 7. changing living relationships
strategies for working with the aged
treat them like adults, adn modify the attitudes within the systems which they live
why the aged dont recieve much help
many don;t understand them, 2. investment syndome - think its more useful to work with younger, and an irrational fear of aging
6 Groups most useful for older adults
1. reality oriented groups, 2. remotivation therapy groups, reminiscing gruops, psychotherapy groups, topic-specific groups, member specific groups
ruminative coping
a tendency for women to be more prone to focus inwardly and passively on their emotions
2 major concerns in couseling women
1. the issue of knowing adequate information about their lives. 2. sexism
issues of cousneling women
1. the cousnelors response to them as a group...we are really very diverse - better to look at women with both uniqueness as well as similarity. 2. must be able to work with them under certain issues, i.e. eating disorders or career development.
7 areas where counslelors should increase their knowledge ...Johnson and Scarato
1. history and sociology of sex-role stereotyping. 2. psychophysiology. 3. theories of personality and sex-role dev., 4. life span dev. 5. special populations, 6. career dev. 7. cousneling/psychotherapy
2 main focuses of feminist theory
1. emphasis on equality in the helping relationship. 2. emphasis on valuing social, political and economic action as a major aprt of the process of treatment
Scher guideline to understanding the realities of men's situations
a. emphasis on the difficulty of change. b. constraints imposed by sex-role stereotypes, c. importance of asking for assistance and dealing with affective issues, d. need to distinguish between difference of roles vs. rules on personal and work lives
Ingersoll points out the importance of defining spirituality and he lists the dimernsions that describe it, which are:
1. a concept of the divine or a force greater then oneself, 2. a sense of meaning, 3. a relationship with the divine, 4.oppenness to mystery, 5. a sense of playfullness, 6. engagment in spiritually enhancing activities, 7. systematic use of spiritual forces as an integrator of life