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136 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
empathy
the ability to project one's self into another person's point of view, so as to experience the others thoughts and feelings
face
the socially approved identity that a communicator tries to present
face work
verbal and nonverbal behavior designed to create and maintain a communicators face and the face of others
impression management
stratagies used by communicators to influence the way others view them
Percieved self
the person we believe our selves to be in moments of candor
perception checking
a three part method for varifying the accuracy of interpretations, including the description of the sense data two possible interpertations and a request for confermation of the interpertations
personality
a realitivly consistant set of traits that a person exhibits across a variety of situations
presenting self
the image a person presents to others; it may be identitical to the percieved selves
reflected appraisal
the theory that a persons self content matches the way the way a person believes others reguard him or her
self concept
the relavtive stable set of percieptions each individual holds of them selves
self esteem
the part of the self concept that involves evaluations of self worth
self fullfilling prophecy
a perdiction or self expectation of an event that makes the outcome more likely to occur than would otherwise have been the case
self serving bias
the thendancy to interperet and explain information in a way that casts the perciever in the most favorable manor
significant other
a person who’s oppinion is important enough to effect ones self concept strongly
sympathy
compassion for another situation
abstract languge
language that lacks or does not refer to observable behavior or other sensory data
abstaction ladder
a range of more to less abstract terms describing an event or object
behavioral description
an account that refers only to observable phenomena
convergence
accomodating ones speaking style to another person who usually is desirable or has higher status
divergence
a linguistic strategy in which speakers empathise differences between their comunicative style in others in order to create distance
emotive language
language that conveys the senders attitude rather than simply offering an objective description
equivocal words
words that have more than one dictionary definition
equivocation
a vague statement that can be interpreted in more than one way
euphemism
a pleaseant sounding word used in place of a more direct less pleaseant one
factual statement
statement that can be verified as being true of false
high content culture
a culture that avoids direct use of language to express information especially about relational matters
inferential statement
conclusion arrived at from an interpretation of evidence
jargon
the specialized vocabulary that is used as kind of a short hand by people with common backgrounds and experience
language
a collection of symbols governed by rules used to convey messages between individuals
linguistic determinism
theory that a culture's world view is unavoidably shaped and reflected by the language its members speak
linguistic relativism
a moderate form of linguistic determinism that argues that language exerts a strong influence on perceptions of the people who speak it
low context culture
a culture that relies heavily on language to make messages especially of relational nature explicit
opinion statement
statement based on the speaker's beliefs
phonological rules
linguistic rules governing how sounds are combined to form words
pragmatic rules
rules that govern the everyday use of language, they are rarely written down or discussed
relative words
words that gain their meaning by comparison
semantic rules
rules that govern the meaning of language as opposed by its structure
sex roles
a social orientation that governs behavior in contrast to a person's biological gender
slang
language used by a group of people whose members belong to a similar co-culture or other group
symbols
an arbitrary sign used to represent the thing, person, idea, event, or relationship in ways that make communication possible
syntactic rules
rules that govern the ways in which symbols can be arranged as opposed to the meanings of those symbols
whorf-sapir hypothesis
theory that the structure of a language shapes the world view of its users
action oriented listeners
a listening style that is primatily concerned with accomplishing the task at hand
advising
helping response in which the reciever offers suggestions about how the speaker should deal with a problem
ambushers
a style in which the reciever listens carefully to gather information to use in an attack on the speaker
analyzing
a helping style in which the listener offers an interpertation of a speakers message
attending
the process of focusing on certain stimuli from the enviorment
content oriented listeners
a listening style that focuses on the content of the message
counterfeit question
a question that disguises the speakers true motive which doesn't include a genuine desire to understand the other person
critical listening
listening in which the goals are to judge the quality or accuracy of the speaker's remarks
defensive listening
a response style in which the receiver perceives the speaker's comments as an attack
empathetic listening
listening in which the goals are to help the speaker solve a problem
hearing informational speaking
the process where a sound wave strikes the ear-drum and causes vibrations that are transmitted to the brain
insensitive listeners
failure to recognize the thoughts or feelings that are not directly expressed by a speaker instead accepting the speakers words at face value
insulated listeners
a style in which the reciever ignores undesirable information
judging
a reaction in which the reciever evaluates the sender's message either favorably of un favorably
listening
process where the brain reconstructs electrochemical impulses generated by hearing into representations of the original sound and give them meaning
paraphrasing
feedback in which the receiver rewards the speaker's thought and feelings
people orientated listeners
a listening style that is primarily concerned with creating and maintaining positive relationships
prompting
using silence and brief statements of encouragement to draw out a speaker
pseudolistening
an imitation of true listening in which the receivers mind is elsewhere
questioning
feedback that usually request the speaker to supply additional information in order to clarify or expand the receivers understanding
remembering
the act of recalling previous information
residual message
the part of a message a receiver can recall after short/long term memory loss
responding
providing observable feedback to another person's behavior or speech
selective listening
a listening style in which the receiver responds to messages that only interest him or her
sincere question
a question that imposes a genuine desire to learn from another person
stage hog
a listening style in which the receiver is more concerned with making his or her own point than with understanding the speaker
supporting
a response style in which the receiver reassures comforts or distracts the person seeking help
time oriented listeners
a listening style that is primarily concerned with minimizing the time necessary to accomplish the task at hand
understanding
the act of interpreting a message by following syntactic symantic and pragmatic rules
affect blends
the combination of two or more expressions each following a different emotion
chronemics
the study of how humans use and structure time
disfluences
a non linguistic verbalization
emblems
deliberate non verbal behaviors with precise meanings known to virtually all members of a cultural group
illustrators
non verbal behaviors that accompany and support non verbal messages
intimate distance
one of Halls four distance zones ranging from skin contact to eighteen inches
kinesics
the study of body movement posture and gesture
manipulators
movements in which one part of the body grooms masages rubs holds fidgets pinches picks or otherwise manipulates another part
non verbal communication
messages expressed by other than linguistic means
paralanguage
non linguistic means of vocal expression rate pitch tone and so on
proxemics
the study of how people and animals use space
public distance
one of Halls four distance zones extending outward from twelve feet
social distance
one of Halls four distance zones ranging from four to twelve feet
territory
fixed space that an individual assumes some right to occupy
affinity
the degree to which people like or appreciate eachother; normally expressed nonverbally
altruistic lies
deception that was intended to be unmalicious
breadth
the range of topics at which an individual discloses
content messages
a message that communicates information about the subject being discussed
contextual interpersonal behavior
any communication between two people
control
the social need to influence others
depth
a level of personal information a person reveals on a particular topic
developmental model
these models propose that the nature of communication is different in various stages of interpersonal relationships
dialectical model
a model claiming that throughout their lifetime people in virtually all interpersonal relationships must deal with equally important opposing forces
dialectical tensions
inherent conflicts that arise when two opposing or incompatible forces exsist simulaneously
equivocal language
language with one or more interpretations
immediacy
the degree of interest or attraction we feel toward and communicate to others
intimacy
a state of closness between two people
johari window
a model that describes the realstionship between self disclosure and self awareness
metacommunication
messages that refer to other messages
qualitative interpersonal communication
interaction in which people treat one another as unique individuals reguardless of the context in which the interaction occurs or the number of people involved
relational messages
a message that expresses the social relationship between two or more individuals
respect
the degree in which we hold others in esteem
self disclosure
the process in which we deliberately reveal information about ones self that is signifigant and would not normally be known by others
social penetration model
a model describing how intimacy can be achieved via the breadth and depth of self disclosure
assertion
direct perception of sender's needs, thoughts, or feelings delievered in a way that does not attack the reciever's dignity
certianty
messages that imply that the speakers position is correct and that the other person's ideas are not worth listening to
communication climate
emotional tone of relationship as it is expressed in the messages that the partners send and receive
comprimise
an approach to conflict resoloution in which both parties attain atleast part of what they seek through self sacrifice
confirming response
a response that conveys valueing caring and or respecting another person
conflict
an expressed struggle atleast between two parties who percieve incompatible goals
controling message
messages in which the sender tries to impose some sort of out come on the reciever usually resulting in a defence reaction
crazymaking
passive aggressive messages sent in indirect ways that frustrate and confuse the recipiant
deescalatory conflict
a communication spiral in which each party slowly lessens their dependence on one another and become less invested in the relationship
descriptive communication
messages that describe the seekers position without evaluating others
direct aggression
an expression of the speakers thoughts or feelings that attack the position and dignity of the reciever
disconfirming response
a message that expresses a lack of caring or respect for another person
equality
a type of supportive communication suggesting that the sender reguards as worthy of respect
escalatory conflict spiral
a reciprical pattern of communications of which messages between communicators reinforce eachother
evaluative communication
messages in which the sender judges the reciever in some way
Gibb Categories
six sets of contrasting styles of verbal and nonverbal behavior
"I" language
language that describes the speakers position without evaluating others
indirect communication
hinting at a message instead of expressing thoughts and feelings directly
lose-lose problem solving
an approach to conflict resoloution in which neither parties achieve their goals
neutrality
a defence arrousing behavior in which the sender expresses indifference toward the reciever
nonassertion
the inability or unwillingness to express ones thoughts or feelings when necessary
passive aggressive
an indirect expression of aggression delievered in a way that allows the sender to maintain a façade of kindness
problem oriented
a supportive style of communication in which the communicators focus on working together to solve their problems instead of trying to impose their solutions on one another
provisionalism
a supportive style of communication in which the sender expresses a willingness to consider the other persons position
spiral
reciprocal communication pattern in which each person's message reienforces eachother
spontaneity
supportive communication behavior in which the sender expresses a message without any attempt to manipulate the reciever
strategy
a defence -arrousing style of communication in which the sender tries to trick the reciever
superiority
a defence arrousing style of communication in which the sender states or implies that the reciever is inferior
win-lose conflicts
approach to conflict resoloution in which one party reaches it's goal at the expense of the others
win-win problem solving
approach to conflict resoloution in which the parties work together all to satisfy their goals
"you" language
language that judges another person increasing the likely hood of a defensive reaction