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101 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Cultivation Theory
George Gerbner. Media has the ability to cultivate potential effects through lost of exposure over a long period of time
Demassification
targets specific audiences, niches, fragmentations
Media Melding
convergence, internet: visual plus print, internet radio, etc.
Agenda Setting
Maxwell McCoumbs and Donald Shaw. Found that media isn’t necessarily impactful in telling us what to think, but telling us what to think about
Powerful Effects
The Payne Field Studies, children replicate what they see (Bozo the clown), War of the Worlds
Magic Bullet Theory
1970 Propoganda in WWI
Catalytic Theory
1960's film of woman beating Bobo dol, child imitates--media has powerful effect on children
Cumulative Effects
media is powerful, but cumulative over time
Spiral of Silence
1973, we perceive our climate to be acceptable or not, if we're the minority we remain silent
Modeling
we try to assimilate, so we model after our parents--games based off of TV and film
Uses and Gratifications
TV is on but nobody watches, used as background noise, MEDIA INDUCED RITUALS AND ROUTINES
Diffusion of Innovation
time that innovations take to be widely used (iPod)
Gate-Keeping
Editors, TV executives, directors, decide info that will go forward--ERODING, because of internet--how do you assimilate information
Socialization Function
watch a show to fit in a group, how you dress, how you behave
Diverse Function
stimulation, relaxation, release
Mass Communication
1900's, mass magazines and newspapers, radio
Yellow Journalism
battle of the newspapers
Persuasion Theory
advertising, buy/use product, perceive as need, brand loyalty--much easier to reinforce than to persuade
Appeals in Advertising
logical appeal, emotional appeal
Vulnerable Audiences
Children, teenagers, uneducated, elderly
Media-Induced Passivity
1950's people stop going to church, media entices people away from social int3eraction, tv fulfills what socialization once did, lodges, participation in sports goes down
EEOC
promotes equal opportunities in workplace
ACLU
American Civil Liberties Union
Mass Media in 1700s
churches, taverns, orators (era of yeoman farmer)
Mass Media in 1800s
newspapers (circ. in NY exceeded population), morning and evening news
1920's
Onset of radio, mass freely, stations on top of one another, regulation requested in 1920
Federal Radio Act of 1927
clean up the airwaves, license those who want to broadcast
1933
airwaves not cleaned up, Federal Communications Act of 1934 which regulates ALL communication by wire, done in public interest
FCC says publically owned airwaves must be done in:
Public Interest
Convenience
Necessity

PICN
News and Public Affairs
for every hour on air, at least 5 minutes of NPR programming, because it's a necessity
Area of Governance: Advertising
pre 1900, no restrictions, label laws, ingredients, Upton Sinclair, Pure Food and Drug Act, Meat Packing Act
Federal Trade Commission Act of 1914
handles unfair methods of competition, deceptive practices in commerce, legislation on advertising unless approved--can't advertise unless labeled
FTC vs. Winstead Hosiery
advertised wool underwear, FTC found wasn't true, sued for making false claim, won
Treble Damage Award
if you spend money on deceptive campaign, you have to spend 3X that amount in apologizing to public
1972 FTC
Congress extends to harmful products, tobacco unlawful to advertise on television, MADD, takes on sports too, how to regulate internet?
Third Person Effect
people overestimate how much the media affects people (beard waiver article)
Media elite
the more we get involved in media, the more we forget what its initial purpose was (Bill Clinton talkshow circuit)
Media and Cognitive Dissonance
we have information that we're unable to integrate into our belief structure (Vietnam)
Mass
a collective audience, a group large enough to make some difference, majority of specified audience
Seven forms of Distribution Vehicles
TV, radio, news, magazines, internet/computer, books, films
Trends in Mass Media
Demassified, Globalization, Conglomeration, Media Melding/Convergence
Third Person Effect
people overestimate how much the media affects people
Media elite
Walter Lipman: the more we get involved in media, the more we forget what its initial purpose was
Media and Cognitive Dissonance
disconnect with information we receive
Diffusion of Innovation
our ability to adop new technologies,
Edward Muybridge
takes subsequent pictures, puts on reel--they move!
Nickelodeons
Thomas Edison and Laurie Detson, invent kinetoscope, start working on proector
Silent Film era
1903
First talkie
Jazz Singer
Studio Giants
Hollywood becomes commercialized, movies move from place to place
Movies in late 1920s
Great depression WWII, monopoly on color, Citizen Kane greatest movie
Hollywood's Golden Age
40-s and 50s, financially well off, subrubs
Widescreen and Color Age
50s to 70s, competition, innovation, smellovision, cinerama, vistavision
Transformation and Video Era
70s-2000, lobby against VCR, socialization, Star Wars summer release
Re-Emergence Era
resurgence of movie attendance, indie films, dist. changes to internet
7 Forms of mass Communication
TV, films, books, radio, magazine, newspapers, internet
5 Trends of Communication
Globalization, Conglomeration, Demassification, Media melding, media control
Globalization
cross ownership of companies, internationally, outsourcing
Conglomeration
chains, AOL-time warner
Demassification
choices, specificity
MEdia Melding
converging (watch tv online)
Media Control
who controls it and why?
1st Amendment
1791
Film had ___ Effects
POWERFUL
Mass Newspaper Years
late 1800s
Mass Magazines Years
late 1800s
Deforest:
father of radio, grandfather of teleivison
Armstrong
invented FM radio
Bill of Rights
1789
Licensing of Newspapers
1788
FCC
1934
Federal Radio Commission, Federal Communications Act
1933
PICN
foundation to broadcasting
Switch from AM to FM
1970s
How has TV changed us?
architecture, media-induced rituals, does TV kill, home life, violence
Farnsworth
father of television
Andrew Bradford and Ben Franklin
first American magazines
John Brinckley
super power radio station
Magic Bullet Theory
media sends out message as quickly as we receive and perceive it--POWERFUL EFFECTS
Ben Harris
public occurrences, first paper in colonies, lasted one day because of no licensening
Functions of mass media
inform, influence, entertain
gatekeeping
adjust messages the way you want to spin a story
Powerful Effects
children internalize cultural norms, Payne Fund Studies, violence movies (War of the Worlds)
Cumulative Effects
powerful but more research, Spiral of Scilence (perceive opinion through others), Cultivation Theory:exposure to TV starts to represent reality
Moderate Effects
children integrate for group games, agenda setting (emphasize certain issues)
Cultural Norms Theory: heavy tv watchers answe questions differently than light ones
Minimal Effects
mass comm doesn't serve as a necessary cause of audience effects, election inissues (few people influenced by political advertising)
Diversion Functions
stimulation (overcome boredom)
relaxation )becomes overloaded, soft music)
release (blow off steam, escape)
Cultural Imperialism
global village, Japanes elvis impersonator
Persuasion theory
attidue change or pesuasion takes time
values continuum
older audiences values are set, younger more easily influenced
Media Use Needs
diversion, social, identity, surevillance
Libel
elements, publication, identification, defamation, fault, actualy injury
Times v. Sullivan
public official
Potter Box
define situation, values, loyalties, philosophies
Magazine Categories
Consumers, Business
Readership:
magazines: 4x circulation
newspapers: 2 1/2 x ciculation
Stubblefield
invented radio
Radios call signs
W,N,N, A
Barriers to Newsgathering
laws, crises, govt., time
Ivy Lee
father of public relations
PR functions
shape attitudes, community relations, news management, crisis management, lobbying, fundraising