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38 Cards in this Set

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Theory
Theory encompasses all careful, systematic, and self-conscious discussion and analyses of communication phenomena.
Scientists
- truth is singular.
- Reality is accessible through our senses.
- Collectively, scientists can understand the world.
- Good theories are mirrors of nature, true as long as conditions remain the same.
Epistemology
the study of the nature of knowledge
Interpretive
Interpretive scholars also seek truth, but they are more tentative about the possibility of revealing objective reality.
Truth is largely subjective; meaning is highly interpretive.
The knower cannot be separated from the known.
Multiple meanings are acceptable.
Successful interpretations are those that convince others.
Social scientists vs. scientists
value objectivity; personal values should not distort human reality
Interpretive scholars acknowledge that values impinge on our ability to know, to see, to theorize.
 Scientists seek effectiveness; humanists focus on participation.
The purpose of theory: universal laws or guides for interpretation?
Scientists seek universal laws; humanists strive to interpret individual texts.
Scientists test theories; humanists explore the web of meaning constituting human existence.
Scientists seek prediction; humanists strive for interpretation.
Socio-psychological tradition
epitomizes the scientific or objective perspective. There are communication truths that can be discovered by careful, systematic observation.
Cybernetic tradition
they seek to answer the question, "How can we get the bugs out of this system?"
one of the oldest
tries to get the information from one side to the other clearly
more abt info processing and the reduction of uncertainty

matter of technology moreso than social/psychological
Rhetorical tradition
Communication as artful public address, persuasion, oratorical training as the cornerstone of a leader's education, an emphasis on the power and beauty of language to move people emotionally and stir them to action

Communication as artful public address
Persuasion
Oratorial training as the cornerstone of a leader’s education
An emphasis on the power and beauty of language to move people emotionally and stir them to action.
Semiotic tradition
Asks how is meaning acquired. A positic relation between the sign and referent and a negative relation between the sign and many other things. We know a dog does not equal a table, cat, circle, etc.

Communication as the process of sharing meaning through signs.
Semiotics is the study of signs.
What’s a sign? A sign is anything that can stand for something else…
Meaning is arbitrary
Meanings don’t reside in words or other symbols, but in people
Socio-cultural tradition
Communication as the creation and enactment of social reality
Sapir-Whorf hypothesis

Language as a social construction

Communication as interpersonal influence
Relationships among communication stimuli, audience predisposition, and opinion change.
Causes of persuasive variation.
Who—the source of the message.
What—the content of the message.
Whom—the audience characteristics.

Communication as the creation and enactment of social reality.
Edward Sapir and Benjamin Lee Whorf pioneered this tradition.
The Sapir-Whorf hypothesis: the structure of a culture’s language shapes what people think and do.
It is through language that reality is produced, maintained, repaired, and transformed.
Sapir-Whorf hypothesis
structure of a culture's language shapes what the people think and do, it is through language that reality is produced, maintained, repaired, and transformed.
Critical tradition
Communication as a reflective challenge of unjust discourse. Challenges the control of language to perpetuate power inbalances, the role of mass media in dulling sensitivity to repression, and blind reliance on the scientific method and uncritical acceptance of empirical findings

Communication as a reflective challenge of unjust discourse.
Critical theory derives from the German Frankfurt School.
Critical theorists challenges:
The control of language to perpetuate power imbalances.
The role of mass media in dulling sensitivity to repression.
Blind reliance on the scientific method and uncritical acceptance of empirical findings.
Phenomenological tradition
Communication as the experience of self and others through diologue, refers to the intentional analysis of everyday life from the standpoint of the person who is living it. Great emphasis on people's perception and interpreation of their own subjective experience.

Communication as the experience of self and others through dialogue.
Phenomenology refers to the intentional analysis of everyday life from the standpoint of the person who is living it.
Carl Rogers established three conditions for personality and relationship change:
Congruence
Unconditional positive regard
Empathic understanding
First order:
Denotation
Sign1
Signifier/Signified
Second order:
Connotation,

How are things reproduced give a sense of connotation
 Sign1
Barthes:
Systems of connotations are mythic.
Within mythic systems, the sign of the first system becomes the signifier of the second
Sign2
Sign1/Signified

Sign1 becomes the signifier of a second order significaiton
Mythic systems...
affirm the status quo as natural, inevitable, and eternal.
They strip the sign of history
The shift to myth transforms a neutral sign into an ideologicasl tool.
Dick Hebdige suggests that although countercultural semiotic activity is eventually co-opted by mainstream society, it enjoys a brief time of subversive signification.
Cooptation
Counterculture
Assimilation
Reading is determined by...
Reading is a negotiation between the numerous discourses of the reader and the discourse of the text.
Discourse
a register of languages with its respective ways of conceptualizing the world.
Ideology and reading
Ideology: a system of ideas Ideology often works at the unconscious level
Ideology naturalizes your reading position.
Counter-ideology, counter-hegemony.
Preferred readings
It is one that guides use to a meaning of the photograph that lies within the traditional values of law and order

Dominant system
Dominant code
Dominant discourses
Negotiation readings
It accepts dominant values and existing structures, but is prepared to argue that a particular group’s place within the structure needs improving

Subordinate system
Oppositional reading
It rejects the dominant version and the social values that produced the text.
The three core principles of symbolic interactionism are concerned with
meaning, language, and thought.

MEAD
Meaning...
arises out of the social interaction people have with each other.
Meaning is not inherent in objects.
Meaning is negotiated through the use of language, hence the term symbolic interactionism.
Second principle:
As human beings, we have the ability to name things.
Symbolic naming is the basis for society—the extent of knowing is dependent on the extent of naming.
Third principle:
An individual’s interpretation of symbols is modified by his or her own thought process.
Minding
Humans require social stimulation and exposure to abstract symbol systems to have conceptual thought.
Humans have the unique capacity to take the role of the other.
Rhetoric:
making persuasion possible
Rhetorical proof:
logos, ethos, and pathos.
Logos
Logical proof comes from the line of argument in the speech.

Enthymeme
Syllogism
Ethos
Ethical proof is the way the speaker’s character is revealed through the message.

emphasizes the speaker’s credibility, which is manifested in intelligence, character, and goodwill.

Intelligence: practical wisdom and shared values

Virtuous character: the speaker’s image as a good and honest person

Goodwill is a positive judgment of the speaker’s intention toward the audience.
Pathos
Emotional proof is the feeling the speech draws from the hearers.

the feeling the speech draws from the hearers.
Anger vs. mildness.
Love or friendship vs. hatred.
Fear vs. confidence.
Shame vs. shamelessness.
Indignation vs. pity.
Admiration vs. envy
Enthymeme is
merely an incomplete version of a formal deductive syllogism.
Syllogism is
A form of deductive reasoning consisting of a major premise, a minor premise, and a conclusion
Identification
is the common ground that exists between speaker and audience
Substance / homophily
ID through style and content
ID flows both ways