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87 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
experiment
study of EFFECTS OF VARIABLES manipulated by researcher where all other variables are HELD CONSTANT.
confounding
mixing variation from one source with variation from another souce. so that its impossible to know whether the effects are because of the impact of either variable separately or some combination of them.
types of questions that lead to experimental research
1) Questions asking if a cause-and-effect relationship exists:
Requirements for a “true” experiment:
I. Control: “methods researchers use to remove or hold constant the effects of nuisance variables”
- Pages 399-401 Major approaches to control:
Notation for experimental designs
O= Observation of ____________________ the dependent variable.
X= Experimental variable or _____________ the independent variable.
R= _______________________
Randomization (either r. assignment or r. sampling)
So, a notation for a true experiment:
*Starts with R
*Must make observations (O) of at least 2 groups *One group with X, one group withoutOne example with all 3 elements:
One example with all 3 elements:
R O X O (experimental group)
R O O (__________ group)
How would you verbally describe what the experimenter did? (reveals the name)
Pretest Posttest Control Group Study
Pretest-Posttest Control Group? Posttest Only Control Group? Solomon Four Groups Design?
1. My question is whether gender or age has an effect on the ability to comprehend accented English. Which research method should I use?
-
2. If I’d like to determine if the intervention called the “Picture Exchange Communication System” is effective with individuals with severe autism, which research method should I use?
-
3. To determine if the intervention called the “Picture Exchange Communication System” is effective with individuals with severe autism, I find a large group of these individuals and RANDOMLY assign them to two groups: experimental and control groups, then I give them pretests and post tests. Which notation shows this experiment?
A.
Refer to the following article title to answer the next 2 questions:
-
Pries, J. (2006). The effect of picture communication symbols on the verbal comprehension commands
by young children with autism. Focus on Autism & Other Developmental Disabilities, 21, 194-210.

5) What is the dependent variable?
A. Picture communication symbols B. Verbal comprehension commands C. Young children with autism
-
Internal validity/invalidity
Internal validity: Degree to which we can be sure that no confounding variables have obscured the true relationship between the variables in the experiment. The confidence we can have in the assertion that the variable(s) we have called “cause(s)” or IVs actually produced the observed effects.
Internal invalidity: the presence of contamination that prevents the experimenter from concluding that the study’s experimental variable is responsible for the observed effects.
Exernal validity/invalidity
External validity: describes our ability to generalize from results of the study to the real world.
FACTORIAL DESIGNS
“When more than one input or independent variable is studied, the input variables are called “factors” and the study is a “factorial design.”
Factorial designs...
To examine “interaction effects” = to see if special
combinations of variables produce unique effects.
EXPERIMENT 1:
BUT, what if a particular combination of gender and animation is especially strong in inducing positive (or negative) perceptions of credibility? Is it better to be a “high animation male” or a “high animation female?”



TYPES OF QUESTIONS that lead to empirical descriptive research
Questions focusing on interpretations of meanings of social actors.
§ Questions about naturally arising behavior that can’t be produced in laboratories.
§ Desire to observe firsthand as messages are produced.
3. To determine if the intervention called the “Picture Exchange Communication System” is effective with individuals with severe autism, I find a large group of these individuals and RANDOMLY assign them to two groups: experimental and control groups, then I give them pretests and post tests. Which notation shows this experiment?
A.
Refer to the following article title to answer the next 2 questions:
-dlfkg
Pries, J. (2006). The effect of picture communication symbols on the verbal comprehension commands
by young children with autism. Focus on Autism & Other Developmental Disabilities, 21, 194-210.

5) What is the dependent variable?
A. Picture communication symbols B. Verbal comprehension commands C. Young children with autism
-adfksdf
Internal validity/invalidity
Internal validity: Degree to which we can be sure that no confounding variables have obscured the true relationship between the variables in the experiment. The confidence we can have in the assertion that the variable(s) we have called “cause(s)” or IVs actually produced the observed effects.
Internal invalidity: the presence of contamination that prevents the experimenter from concluding that the study’s experimental variable is responsible for the observed effects.
Exernal validity/invalidity
External validity: describes our ability to generalize from results of the study to the real world.
FACTORIAL DESIGNS
“When more than one input or independent variable is studied, the input variables are called “factors” and the study is a “factorial design.”
Factorial designs...
To examine “interaction effects” = to see if special
combinations of variables produce unique effects.
EXPERIMENT 1:
BUT, what if a particular combination of gender and animation is especially strong in inducing positive (or negative) perceptions of credibility? Is it better to be a “high animation male” or a “high animation female?”



TYPES OF QUESTIONS that lead to empirical descriptive research
Questions focusing on interpretations of meanings of social actors.
§ Questions about naturally arising behavior that can’t be produced in laboratories.
§ Desire to observe firsthand as messages are produced.
3. To determine if the intervention called the “Picture Exchange Communication System” is effective with individuals with severe autism, I find a large group of these individuals and RANDOMLY assign them to two groups: experimental and control groups, then I give them pretests and post tests. Which notation shows this experiment?
A.
Refer to the following article title to answer the next 2 questions:
-dlfkg alfjsdflk
Pries, J. (2006). The effect of picture communication symbols on the verbal comprehension commands
by young children with autism. Focus on Autism & Other Developmental Disabilities, 21, 194-210.

5) What is the dependent variable?
A. Picture communication symbols B. Verbal comprehension commands C. Young children with autism
-adfksdfsdf sdfs df
Internal validity/invalidity
Internal validity: Degree to which we can be sure that no confounding variables have obscured the true relationship between the variables in the experiment. The confidence we can have in the assertion that the variable(s) we have called “cause(s)” or IVs actually produced the observed effects.
Internal invalidity: the presence of contamination that prevents the experimenter from concluding that the study’s experimental variable is responsible for the observed effects.
Exernal validity/invalidity
External validity: describes our ability to generalize from results of the study to the real world.
FACTORIAL DESIGNS
“When more than one input or independent variable is studied, the input variables are called “factors” and the study is a “factorial design.”
Factorial designs...
To examine “interaction effects” = to see if special
combinations of variables produce unique effects.
EXPERIMENT 1:
BUT, what if a particular combination of gender and animation is especially strong in inducing positive (or negative) perceptions of credibility? Is it better to be a “high animation male” or a “high animation female?”



TYPES OF QUESTIONS that lead to empirical descriptive research
Questions focusing on interpretations of meanings of social actors.
§ Questions about naturally arising behavior that can’t be produced in laboratories.
§ Desire to observe firsthand as messages are produced.
3. To determine if the intervention called the “Picture Exchange Communication System” is effective with individuals with severe autism, I find a large group of these individuals and RANDOMLY assign them to two groups: experimental and control groups, then I give them pretests and post tests. Which notation shows this experiment?
A.
Refer to the following article title to answer the next 2 questions:
-dlfkg alfjsdflk
Pries, J. (2006). The effect of picture communication symbols on the verbal comprehension commands
by young children with autism. Focus on Autism & Other Developmental Disabilities, 21, 194-210.

5) What is the dependent variable?
A. Picture communication symbols B. Verbal comprehension commands C. Young children with autism
-adfksdfsdf sdfs df
Internal validity/invalidity
Internal validity: Degree to which we can be sure that no confounding variables have obscured the true relationship between the variables in the experiment. The confidence we can have in the assertion that the variable(s) we have called “cause(s)” or IVs actually produced the observed effects.
Internal invalidity: the presence of contamination that prevents the experimenter from concluding that the study’s experimental variable is responsible for the observed effects.
Exernal validity/invalidity
External validity: describes our ability to generalize from results of the study to the real world.
FACTORIAL DESIGNS
“When more than one input or independent variable is studied, the input variables are called “factors” and the study is a “factorial design.”
Factorial designs...
To examine “interaction effects” = to see if special
combinations of variables produce unique effects.
EXPERIMENT 1:
BUT, what if a particular combination of gender and animation is especially strong in inducing positive (or negative) perceptions of credibility? Is it better to be a “high animation male” or a “high animation female?”



TYPES OF QUESTIONS that lead to empirical descriptive research
Questions focusing on interpretations of meanings of social actors.
§ Questions about naturally arising behavior that can’t be produced in laboratories.
§ Desire to observe firsthand as messages are produced.
Complete Participant
(p. 248)
Subjective Sympathetic Involved Deceptive
Participant as Observer --
in between both
Complete Observer
(p. 250)
Objective Unsympathetic
Detached
Candid
Participant as observer:
a role in ethnography or participant observation research characterized by the investigator’s gathering data while taking part in the activities of a group – and after making his or her research identity known to the group. (p. 251)
We’ll focus on only the 1st step in the process of ethnography:
n n n n
n n
B) STEPS IN THE PROCESS
1. Select a position for the researcher (p. 257)
1) Ventriloquist (transmit info, try to be invisible)
2) Positionality of voices (subjects and their voices are
the focus, be vaguely present)
3) Activism stance (be advocate for marginalized people beyond scholarly researcher role)
4) Postcritical ethnography (critique one’s own acts of studying and representing people as acts of domination)
fieldwork
study of people acting in the natural course of their daily lives
naturalistic studies
inquiries completed in the natural environment
participant observation
researchers study groups by gaining membership or close relationships with them.
ethnography
researcher studies ppls lives for an extended period of time collecting data. overtly or covertly.
ethnomethodology
new ethnography. not rigorous. people live within ethnic group and develop insight into the culture.
3 major purposes for ethnog/ fieldwork:
1. when questionnaires are Innapriopriate
2. when the setting is so new that hypothesis are undeveloped
3. when developing analytic inductions. (drawing conclusions)
full participant observation
gathering data while taking part in the activities, keep identity UNKNOWN
complete observer
no contact with the individuals observing
participant as observer
gather data while taking part in activites and dont reveal identity.
research positions: defined for themselves and others
-ventriloquizing others interests (neutral transmission of facts)
- giving voice to silenced groups
(indigenous)
- engaging in direct activism
post-critical ethnography
critique their own subjects according to the research postitions. how their own acts of studying are like DOMINATION
The method selected is determined by :
the research question asked!
CH 8: CONTENT ANALYSIS: A) TYPES OF QUESTIONS
Questions that ask about:
a) MAIN: characteristics of msgs that can be categorized and counted.
b) comparisons of message patterns, flow c) comparisons of msg content w/ real life
(across groups, cultures; challenging assumptions of fairness, equality)
Content Analysis: Qualitative or Quantitative Research?
• Considered more “qualititative” even though quantitative “counting” involved.
• Because:
*”Counts” are merely means of identifying,
describing data.
*Interpretation of results is vital to the research.
Often to help evaluate whether comm patterns “are as they should be” (p.
321).
An example of Content Analysis...
• Brewer, P. R., & Macafee, T. (2007). Anchors away: Media framing of
broadcast television network evening news anchors. Harvard International Journal of Press/Politics, 12 (4), 3-19.
ABSTRACT: Between 2002 and 2006, six newcomers took the anchor chairs at the evening news programs of ABC, CBS, and NBC. Collectively, they received extensive news coverage. This study uses content analysis to examine how three national newspapers framed the new anchors. A frame casting the anchors as competitors in a ratings game was especially common. At the same time, the newspapers regularly framed the anchors in terms of their reporting experience and reporting style, as well as in terms of personal characteristics such as personality, appearance, age, and sex. The newspapers were more likely to frame female anchors in terms of their sex; apart from this, no consistent differences across sex emerged. All three newspapers followed broadly similar patterns in coveri
content analysis
any of several research techniques used to describe and systematically analyze the content of written, spoken or pictorial communication such as books newspapers, television programs, or interview transcripts
From Reinard, Chapter 1:
dont have to know

and from Alex:
Rather than just accepting what others (and now, textbooks) tell you, you have learned how scholars (a term that includes you now) draw conclusions from our field. You have seen how research should look so that you can evaluate the stuff that often gets passed off to you.

You now are equipped with the skills to stay current with new research and developments in the field, remaining a “communication” expert!
ADRIAN TOOMEY
1) 2) 3)
4) 5)
6) 7) 8)

Area of inquiry?
Why interviews?
2 types of interviews:
a) structured
b) unstructured
Sample questions?
“Probes" - to get additional detail, elaboration, or clarification.
The process: quantitative or qualitative? Challenges?
Preliminary conclusions/further research?
Descriptive Empirical Research”
n “Descriptive”
– Describing relationships, not manipulating them via
experimental methods.
n “Empirical” – “Observable”
) TYPES OF QUESTIONS that lead to empirical descriptive research:

*3 emphases:
1) Asking about current descriptions of things, what is occurring
n 2) Exploring explanations that characterize things as they are now.

**a) Ascertaining norms (What is?)
b) Establishing goals (What is best?)
c) Developing methods (What is best to do?)
2 main types of surveys:
A) Questionnaires
B) Interviews (we’ll cover AFTER Midterm 2)
INFERENTIAL STATISTICS (p. 457)
Allows an investigator to generalize results from a particular sample to the population from which the sample was drawn.
Questions:
What are the chances that my results were just a fluke?
What are the chances that the difference between the two groups I tested (control and experimental) are a result of chance and not due to the experimental treatment?
What are the chances that if I conduct the same experiment with a different sample, I’ll get the same results?
Probability distribution
-Probability=
Prob. Distribution=
Usually, the standard normal distribution (bell curve) is the
1. tendency or likelihood with which an
event occurs in a population
2. The distribution a researcher expects to see ordinarily with regard to the variable.

-probability distribution.
A. Probability distribution
So, when a researcher gets a different distribution from the probability distribution, something must have caused it to differ. Could it be the independent variable(s)? What are the chances that the IV caused those scores to be so different from a standard normal distribution?
Null hypothesis (p. 492
Predicts: “There is no relationship between __ and __.”
The null hypothesis is actually tested statistically, not the predictive hypotheses.
EXAMPLE: H0 “Type of speech therapy will have no relationship to level of stuttering after therapy.”
§ 3 groups: receive different treatments (A, B, and C)
§ Measure the level of stuttering (M and SD)- this is the
DV!
§ Compare the Ms and SDs between the groups
§ TEST NULL HYP: “There will be no differences between groups’ scores” = predicting 3 bell curves with the same M and SD.
What if there ARE differences between these scores?
n Remember the questions that inferential statistics answer:
– What are the chances that my results were just a fluke?
– What are the chances that the difference between the three groups I tested are a result of chance and not due to the different treatments?
– WhatarethechancesthatifIconductthesameexperiment with a different sample, I’ll get the same results?
– How strongly can I predict that the population at large will reflect the same results that I got from my sample?

n ANSWER: It all boils down to whether or not your results were SIGNIFICANT!

n B. Statistically significant relationship or difference (p. 495)
Significance: The crucial word in inferential statistics!!!
– “A difference or relationship that is beyond what might be expected to occur by chance alone.”
– The “odds” are set or determined by the researcher.
tatistically significant relationship or difference (p. 495)
Reported in two ways:
§ 1 CALCULATED VALUE - the number resulting from the
statistical calculation.
– Can essentially be ignored when skimming the results section; does not relate to M or SD.
§ 2 CRITICAL VALUE = p value
– A standard or level set by the researcher.
– Indicates the likelihood that the results are due to chance.
– Always reported in the literature; see results sections for examples.
1. p<.05 often designated *
–
Researcher has determined that the different results had less than a 5% (1/20) chance of being a fluke (and a 95% chance the results are due to manipulation of the IV and/or differences between groups. And 95% isn’t bad, so the researcher can reject the null hypothesis!).
2. p<.01 often designated **
–
Researcher has determined that the differences in the M and SD between the groups have a less than 1% (1/100) chance of being just random luck (and a 99% chance the results are due to manipulation of the IV/differences between groups). Researcher can reject the null hypothesis.
3. p<.001 often designated ***
–
Researcher has determined that the different scores on the DV have less than a .1% (1/1000) chance of being due to chance (and a 99.9% (999/1000) likelihood the different scores are due to manipulation of the IV. Yep, the research obviously rejects the null hypothesis!
Q: Which 3 types of messages can we count on being significantly different in perceived amount of usage between genders?
TABLE 3: Sex Differences in Perceived Instructor use of Verbally Aggressive Messages Instructor Mean (SD)
Message Male Female
Character attack .68 (1.07) Competence attack .56 ( .97) Background attack .33 ( .79) Physical appearance .23 ( .64)
Malediction
Teasing
Ridicule
Threats
Swearing
Nonverbal emblems .60 (1.06) .55 ( .92) .45
.09 ( .47) .84 (1.16) .49 ( .96)
.25 ( .61) .08 ( .43) .18
.21 ( .72) .44 ( .93)
.34 ( .83) 1.49
.07 ( .42) 4.59**
Note: Degrees of freedom are 1,302. *p<.05 **p<.01
Inferential statistical formulas (2 common tests
1. t test: a test of statistical significance designed to assess the difference between the means of two groups.
– Used to compare 2 or more groups. § Males, females
§ TBI, not TBI

2. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) or F value or F test: a test of statistical significance that compares the means of two or more groups
– Used to compare 3 or more groups
§ Scores on social skills in high, moderate, low autism
groups
§ Scores on self-esteem for groups high, moderate, low in communication apprehension
§ Scores on speech production for treatment groups A, B, and control group
Sometimes p values are reported that
confirm the null hypothesis:

Kim, E. (2005). Cooperative small group communication: Effects of communication apprehension and pre-academic achievement. International Communication Association Conference Papers, 2005 Annual Meeting, 1-39.
H1: Students with higher PAA will show higher class satisfaction within a cooperative learning context.
Q: What’ s the IV? What’ s the DV?
n n

n n
n n
H1: Students with higher PAA will show higher class satisfaction, within a cooperative learning context.
From the results section:
Class Satisfaction. To test our hypotheses, a series of
ANOVA analyses were performed....
Although the score of “class satisfaction” of the students with higher Pre Academic Achievement was higher (mean=4.26, sd=.81) than those with lower PAA (mean=3.81, sd=.83), the difference was not statistically significant (F=2.06, p=.13). Thus, hypothesis 1 (H1) was not supported.


N 18