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83 Cards in this Set

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Characteristics of and audience-centered speech
Select and narrow topic, determinie purpose, develop central, generate main ideas, gather supporting materia, organize speech, rehearse speech, deliver speech.
What is the def. of ethics?
The beliefs, values, and moral principles by which people determine what is right or wrong.
What are the seven major components of the speech communication model?
Source, message, noise, channel, message, reciever, feedback
Ways to become a better listener
Adapt to the speakers delivery. listen with you eyes as well as your ears, monitor you emotional reaction to the message, avioid jumping to conclusions, be a selfish listener, listen for major ideas, identify your listening goal.
What is critical listening?
The evaluation of the quality of information, ideas, and arguments presented by a speaker.
What is critical thinking?
Making judgements about the conclusions presented in what you see, hear, and read.
What is the speech topic?
The key focus of the speech.
What is the central idea? And the characteristics?
Summarizes the speech (declaritive sentence, direct and specific language, single idea, and audience centered)
What is the general purpose?
THe overarching goal of the speech - to inform, persuade, and entertain.
What is the specific purpose?
A concise state of the desidred audience response indicating what you want your listeners to remember, feel, or do when you finish speaking.
Chronological organization
By time or sequence
Topical organization
according to recency, primacy, complexity, or the speaker's discretion
Spatial organization
Based on location or position
Cause-and-effect organization
focuses on a situation and its causes or a situation and its effects
Problem and solution organization
focuses on a problem and then various solutions or a single solution and the problems it would solve
What is a signpost?
a verbal or nonverbal signal that a speaker is moving from one idea to the next.
5 elements of the introduction
Get audience's attention, intoduce subject, give audience a reason to listen, establish credibility, preview your main ideas.
5 elements of the conclusion
Summarize your speech, reemphasize the central idea in a memorable way, motivate the audience to respond, provide closure
What is the preparation outline?
A detailed outline of a speech that includes main ideas, sub points, and supporting material and that may also include specific purpose, introduction, bluepring, internal preview, and summaries, transitions, and conclusion.
What is the delivery outline?
Condensed and abbreviated outline from which speaking notes are developed.
Chronological organization
By time or sequence
Topical organization
according to recency, primacy, complexity, or the speaker's discretion
Spatial organization
Based on location or position
Cause-and-effect organization
focuses on a situation and its causes or a situation and its effects
Problem and solution organization
focuses on a problem and then various solutions or a single solution and the problems it would solve
What is a signpost?
a verbal or nonverbal signal that a speaker is moving from one idea to the next.
5 elements of the introduction
Get audience's attention, intoduce subject, give audience a reason to listen, establish credibility, preview your main ideas.
5 elements of the conclusion
Summarize your speech, reemphasize the central idea in a memorable way, motivate the audience to respond, provide closure
What is the preparation outline?
A detailed outline of a speech that includes main ideas, sub points, and supporting material and that may also include specific purpose, introduction, bluepring, internal preview, and summaries, transitions, and conclusion.
What is the delivery outline?
Condensed and abbreviated outline from which speaking notes are developed.
Purpose of visual aids...
enhance memory, help listeners organize ideas, help gain and maintain attention, help illustrate a sequence of events or procedures.
Guidelines for preparing visual aids
make them easy to see, keep simple, select the right presenation aids, rehearse with the aids, explain the aids, do not pass objects throughout the audience
Goals of informative speaking
To enhance understanding, to maintain interest, to be remembered
What is an informative speech?
A speech that teaches others new infor, ideas, concepts, principles, or processes in order to enhance their knowledge or understanding about something
What is demographics?
Statistical information about the age, race, gender, sexual orientation, education leve, and religious views of an audience.
What are the three steps in becoming an audience centered speaker?
Gather infor about your audience, analyze the info you have gathered, then use the info to eithically adapt to your listeners.
Oral style
More personal, facilitating interaction between speaker and audience; less formal; more repetitive
Written style
Less personal with no immediate interaction between writer and reader; more formal, less repetitive.
Figure of speech
language that deviates from the ordinarey, expected meaning of words to make a description or comparison unique, vivid, and memorable
Metaphor
an implied comparison between tow things or concepts
Simile
a comarison between two things that uses the word like or as
Crisis rhetoric
language used by speakers during momentous or overwhelming times
Personification
the attribution of human qualites to inanimate things or ideas
Omission
leaving out a word or phrase the listener expects to hear
Inversion
reveral of the normal word order of a phrase or sentence
Suspension
withholding a key word or phrase until the end of the sentence
parallelism
using the same grammtaical pattern for two or more clauses or sentences
antithesis
opposition such as that used in two part sentences in which the sonce part contrasts the meaning in the first part
repitition
use of a key word or phrase more than once for emphasis
alliteration
the repitition of a consonant or sound several times in a phrase, clause, or sentence
What is persuasion?
the process of changing or reinforcing a listeners attitudes, beliefs, values, or behaivor
Attitude
a learned predisposition to respond favorably or unfavorably toward something
belief
what you understand to be true or false
value
an enduring concentp of right and wrong, good and bad.
Elaboration likelihood model of persuasion
the theory that people can be persuaded by logic, evidence and reasoning, or through a more peripheral route that may depend on the credibility of the speaker, the sheer number or arguments presented or emotional appeals.
Cognitive dissonance
the sense of mental discomfort that prompts a person to change when new infro conflicts with previously organized patterns
Social judgement theory
theory that categorizes listener responses to a persuazive message as in the latitude of acceptance, the latitude of rejection, or the latitude of non-commitment
Proposition of fact
a proposition that focuses on whether something is true of false or wheter it did or did not happen
Proposition of value
calls for the listener to judge the worth or importance of something
Proposition of policy
advocates a change in policy, procedure, or behaivor
Ethos
term to refer to a speaker's credibility
Competence
an aspect of a speaker's credibility that reflects wheather the speaker is percieved as informed, skilled, or knowlegdeable
trustworthiness
an aspect of a speaker's credibility that reflects wheter the speak is perceived as being believable and honest
dynamism
an aspect of a speaker's credibility that relfects whether the speaker is perceived as energetic
Pathos
term used to appeals of human emotion
logos
term used to refer to logic
Inductive reasoning
reasoning that uses specific instances or examples to reach a general, probable conclusion
Deductive reasoning
reasoning that moves from a general statements or principle to a specific, certain conclusion
Casual fallacy
a faulty cause and effect conncection between two things or events
bandwagon fallacy
reasoning that suggest that because everyone else believes something or is doing something, then is must be valid or correct
either/or fallacy
the oversimplification of an issue into a choice between only two outcomes or possibilities
hasty generalization
a conclusion reached without adequate evidence
Ad Hominem
an attack or irrelevant personal characteristics of the person who is proposing an idea rather than on the idea itself
red herring
irrelevant facts or information used to distract someone from the issue under discussion
appeal to misplaced authority
use of the testimony of an expert in a given field to endorse an idea or product for whith the expert doen not have the appopriate credentials or expertise
Tips for using emotion to persuade
use concrete examples, use emotion arousing words, use nonverbals to communicate emotion, use visual images to evoke emotions, use appropriate metaphors and similies, use appropriate fear appeals
Persuading the receptive audience
identify with your audience, clearly state your speaking objective, tell you audience exactly what you want them to do, use emotional appeals effectively
persuading the neutral audience
capture the attention early, refer to beliefs that many listeners share, be realistic about what you can accomplish
persuading the unreceptive audience
don't immediatly announce that you plan to change their minds, begin your speech by nothing areas or agreement beofre you discuss areas of disagreement, don't expect a major shift
5 canons
invention, arrangement, style, memory(lost), delivery
Refutation speaking
credibility, evidence, reasoning, guard agaist fallacies, use emotional appeals, remember eithical concerns, anticipate and prevent counter arguments
Rebuttal speech
listen carefully, take notes, organize your response to their main points, attack credibility, look for fallacies, counterarguments
Rhetoric
The faculty of observing in any given situation tall the availiable means of persuasion.