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57 Cards in this Set

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Hyperactivity
A motor difficulty-more prevelant in boys-4X more.
SLI
Specific Language Impairment,
seen primarlily in preschoolers
Characteristics of Autism
Slightly more than 1/2 have IQs < 50. Ecolalic speech.
TBI
Traumatic Brain Injury-most common form of injury in children.
Hyperlexia
Early ability to read, but can't decode language or it's meaning. Low comprehension.
Echolalia
Repeating words or phrases
Disinhibition
Impulsive, acting out
Hemiparesis
Weakness on one side of the body.
Wernicke's aphasia
Fluent or hyperfluent speech, poor auditory or visual comprehension.
Aphasia
No language, sudden onset. More in adults (stroke).
Anomia
Difficulty naming objects
Global Aphasia
Profound; effects reading, writing, language.
Spontaneous Recovery
Happens on its own, 1st few weeks after injury, w/o intervention.
Cerebral arteriosclerosis
Thickening of walls of the cerbral arteries
Arteriovenous malformation
Tangled arteries & veins in the brain.
Embolism
Obstruction of blood flow caused by blood clot.
Thrombosis
Caused by plaque build-up at that site.
Aneurysm
Bulge, may rupture, causing hemmorhage.
Alzheimer's Disease
Affect memory
T or F
Communication disorders are secondary to survival, physical components.
T
Characteristics of Mental Retardation
1.Substantial limitation in present functioning
2.Significantly sub-avg. intellectual functioning.
3.Concurrent related limitations in 2+ adaptive skills.
4.Manifestation before age 18
Secondary behaviors of stuttering
Are learned behaviors:
Eye blinking, facial grimacing, facial tension, exaggerated movements of the head.
Types of stuttered utterances
Involuntary repetition of sounds & words:
Prolongations, blocks, broken words.
Indirect stuttering therapy
For children just beginning to stutter, and is mild. Manipulation of the environment to reduce stress.
Psychoneurotic disturbances
People who stutter do NOT exhibit these, but have mile forms of social maladjustment.
Normal speech disfluencies
We have them all our lives.
Stuttering therapy most effective with
preschool children
Gentle voicing onset
Requires iniation, gradual start of voice, /h/ sound.
Adult voice is acheived at age
18
% of adult population with voice disorders
3-9%
Localized growths on the vocal folds resulting from frequent, hard vocal fold collisions-misuse/abuse
Vocal nodules
Two different vocal fundamental frequencies
Diplophonia
Otolaryngologic evaluation is given when?
Before voice therapy is initiated.
Associated with psychological or stress conditions
Conversion aphonia
A person's average pitch
Habitual pitch
Subglottic pressure determines
vocal intensity, loudness
Phonemes are
speech sounds
Consonant phonemes are characterized by
Place
Manner
Voicing
T or F
Functional articulation disorder has no known cause
T
Speech problems due to neuromuscular impairment; caused by stroke, cerebral palsy, results in weakness of the speech mechanism.
Dysarthrias
Shaping of speech sound by using the lips, tongue, teeth, etc.
Articulation
Seperation of the muscle under the soft palate
Submucous cleft
Highest incidence of clefting is in
Native Americans
VPI
Velopharyngeal Incompetence
mechanism is incapable of separating the oral & nasal cavities during swallowing & speech production.
Hypotonia
Low tone
Hypertonia
Too much tone
Apraxia
Motor planning issues
Causes of cerebral palsy
Is it progressive?
Anoxia
Brain hemmorage
No
Condition most assoc. with swallowing in children
Down's Syndrome
The 'gold standard' in dysphagia diagnosis
Modified barium swallow studies; videoflouroscopy
NPO
No food by mouth
Phases of swallowing
Anticipatory
Oral
Pharyngeal
Esophageal
Formed in the mouth & swallowed; a 'package' of food/drink
Bolus
Goes into the lungs, causes pneumonia
Aspiration
4 conditions assoc. with pediatric dysphagia
Cerebral palsy
PDD/Autism
Down's Syndrome
Spina bifida
4 conditions assoc. with adult dysphagia
Stroke
M.S.
Parkinson's
HIV/AIDS
Objectives of swallowing therapy
Improve intake of food & drink.
Prevent aspiration into the lungs.