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69 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Communication Apprehension
The fear or dread of negative responses you might experience because you speak out
Public Speaking Anxiety
Fear or dread specifically related to speaking in public
Process Anxiety
Fear due to lack of confidence in knowing how to preparea speech
Performance Anxiety
Fear of forgetting or of presenting your speech poorly
Communication Competence
The ability to communicate appropriately and successfully
The art of persuasive public speaking; a term often used negatively
The integrated system of learned beliefs, values, behaviors, and norms that include visible (clothing, food) and underlying (core beliefs, worldview) characteristics of a society
Subgroup of culture, characterized by mild or profound cultural differences, that coexists within the larger culture
Rhetorical Sensitivity
The ability to adapt to a variety of audiences and settings and to perform appropriately in diverse social situations
Core Cultural Resources
Beliefs, values, attitudes, and behaviors that provide a logical basis for a culture to define what is necessary, right, doubtful, or forbidden
Mental acceptance that something is true or false, valid or invalid
Ideal by which we judge what is important and moral.
Predisposition to evaluate, either positively or negatively, persons, objects, symbols, and the like
Action considered appropriate or normal within a cultural group
Oral Cultures
Cultures with no writing and no way to record and send messages apart from face-to-face interactions
Literate Cultures
Cultures in which people record their ideas in words that can be sent across space and time; this leads to linear thinking and outlining of ideas
Electronic Culture
culture with technology that can store information on audiotapes, videotapes, CDs, and so on. Technology shrinks the globe and enables people to communicate instantly across great distances
Nonexpressive Cultures
Members value privacy and encourage people to keep their emotions and ideas to themselves rather than to express them publicly
Expressive Cultures
Members are encouraged to give their opinions, speak their minds, and let their feelings show
Communication Style
A culture's preferred ways of communicating given its core assumptions and norms
and applying different rules for competent behaviors in two cultures
Transactional Model of Communication
Represents commutucation as a process in which speakers and listeners work together to create mutual meanings
Canons of Rhetoric
Principles, standards, nornis, or guidelines for creating and delivering a speech
Canon of Invention
Invention principles for designing a speech that meets a need a specific audience has
Canon of Disposition or Arrangement
guidelines for organizing a speech
Words and phrases that you use to tie your ideas together
In rhetoric, style means language
Canon of Style
Principles for choosing effective language
Canon of Memory
Guidelines to help you remember your ideas
Memorized Delivery
Learning the speech by heart, then reciting it
Manuscript Delivery
Reading a speech
Impromptu Delivery
Speaking with little advanced preparation
Extemporaneous Delivery
Preparing a speech carefully in advance but choosing the exact wording during the speech itself
Canon of Delivery
Rules or standards for presenting your speech
Physiological Anxiety
Bodily responses to a perceived threat (increased heart rate, adrenaline rush
Psychological Anxiety Mental stress about a perceived threat
Fight-or-Flight Mechanism
Physiological mechanism your body automatically activates when threatened to enable you to fight or to flee
Cognitive Modification
Identifying negative thoughts and replacing them with positive ones
Rehearsing by using your imagination to envision your speech from start to finish
Ethical Dilemma
Ethical question or problem that arises when a communicator must balance important but competing beliefs and values
Making a conscious decision to communicate in ways that you, in light of your cultural ideals, consider right, fair, honest, and helpful to yourself and others
Phrase coined by Professor Vernon Jensen to highlight the tension that exists between our right to free speech and our responsibility for our speeches
Response to diversity in which you refuse to change, defend your own positions, or attack others
Response to diversity in which you surrender some or most of your ways and adopt cultural patterns of another group
Response to diversity in which you listen and evaluate the views of others; both sides adapt, modify, and bargain to reach mutual agreements
Multivocal Society
Society that actively seeks expression of a variety of voices or viewpoints
Ideas, opinions, and wishes of a person or group that are expressed openly and formally
Vir bonum, dicendi peritus
The good person, skilled in speakng
Dialogical Theory
Theory that conversation is the foundation for all cornmunication; speakers and listeners work together actively to co-create meaning
Dialogical Speakers
Speakers who value traits such as authenticity and openness and who consequently show respect for their audience
Monological Speakers
Speakers who impose their own agenda regardless of the needs of their audience
Speakers and listeners respond to one another and come to mutual understandings
Self-control or moderation, in contrast to pride or arrogance; civil speakers persuade, consult, and compromise rather than coerce and manipulate
People who taunt, insult, ndicule, or shout down another person
Presenting the words or ideas of others as if they were your own
Make up information or repeat a rumor without sufficiently checking its accuracy
Cultural Allusions
References to historical, literary, and religious sources that are familiar in a specific culture
Place someone in a category, then assume the person fits the characteristics of the category
Having pre-formed biases or judgments, whether negative or positive
Speech-Thought Differential
The difference between the rate you think (about 500 words per minute) and the rate you speak (about 150 words per minute)
Leftover Thinking Space
Another term for the difference between your thinking rate and your speaking rate
Mental plans or models that guide your. perception, interpretation, storage, and recollection of a speech
Comprehensive Listening
Listening to learn, understand, or get information
Critical Listening
Listening that requires you to reflect and weigh the merits of persuasive messages before you accept them
Loaded Questions
Questions containing implicanons intended to put the speaker on the defensive
Closed Questions
Requests for brief, specific answers
Open Questions
Requests for more lengthy responses
Clarification Questions
Requests to clear up confusing ideas
Requests for Elaboration
Questions asking for more information
Information from personal experience or research