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136 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Infection of the Epstein-Barr virus. Typically infects the salivary glands
Tick-bourne bacterial illness (deer tick). Symptoms include rash on thighs, groin, trunk, armpits and face.
Lyme Disease
Inflammation of brain tissue and sometimes the meninges. Can be caused by protozoa, fungus, virus, bacteria and sometimes spread by mosquitoes.
Disease char. by sore throat, mild fever, swollen glands. Later, a membrane forms over bk of throat and tonsils making it hard to swallow.
Occurs rarely in people older than 10, begins with bronchitis, slight temp. Cough worsens into a "whoop" sound.
Contracted from sratches, cuts and puncture wounds. Illness causes convulsive contractions of all vol. muscles. Preventable with adm. of antitoxin given immediately.
Difficult to recognize in early stage because resembles common cold. By day 2-3 bluish-white pinpoint spots with red rim (Koplik's spots) appear on face and spread downward throughout body.
(measles - red measles)
Viral disease that affects the salivary glands, especially the paratid gland, on one side or both.
Mild, short lived viral infection. Contact/airbourne precautions. Symptoms similar to Rubeola but less severe, spots do not appear on the oral mucous membrane. Can cause serious fetal malformations if pregnant woman contracts.
(german measles)
Caused by the same virus that causes herpes zoster (singles). Usually begins w/slight fever then a rash that forms blisters that crust over and itch.
(chicken pox)
A contagious viral disease that attache the central nervous system can cause temp. or perm. paralysis and weakness in approx. 50% of suffers.
Most common complications include ear infections, nephritis, arthritis, cardiac problems and pneumonia. Sandpaper-like rash, the tongue becomes coated with a white substance that later disappears and leaves prominent papillae (strawberry tongue).
Scarlet Fever
Most serious complications are rheumatic fever, rheumatic heart disease and nephritis. Rapid diagnosic test or culture is the only way to diff. from simple viral sore throat.
(strep throat)
Believed to be the autoimmune result of continued streptococcal infections. Heart disease is the most common complication.
Rheumatic fever
Benign disease of infancy. Fever followed by rash that spreads from face to rest of body. Believed to be caused by virus and is not as communicable as many other diseases.
The most common lice infestation in children occurs on the head (___ capitis).
Mite that is easily transmitted among children. Entire family needs to be treated when infestation occur.
One of the most common infestation in children, especially those who do not yet have good hygiene habits and often put their fingers in their mouths. S&S include: stratching, teeth grinding in sleep & fatigue.
Protozoan that can cause illness. The ingestion of contaminated water caused by the careless disposal of human excrement provides opportuntity for infestation.
Parasite that is common in warm climates with unclean living conditions. Primarily affect children aged 1-4 who contract them through contaminated toys, fingers and food.
Parasitic worms that most often enter the host through bare feet.
Trauma whose treatment includes casts and traction.
More than 80% of these occur at home because inquisitive toddlers will put anything into the mouth.
The extent of this is determined on a percentage basis because a child's body surface differs in proportion from that of an adult's
This can result from an URI and the infant is unable to cough up mucus plugging the bronchi.
Number one cause of death in infants 1 mo to 1 year and peaks at age 3 month.
Sudden change of behavior in a child of any age is a clue that this has happened.
(neglect, physical and sexual)
Char. developmental symptoms include retarded motor development, inadequate social response and delayed language development. These children are withdrawn and apathetic.
(Failure to thrive)
Abnormal skin mark that can be either hereditary of acquired as a result of teratogens.
Nevus (plural)
or nevi (singluar)
An overgrowth of lymph vessels.
(type of nevi/nevus)
An overgrowth of blood vessels
(type of nevi/nevus)
Irregular dark, blue-green areas generaly found on t he lower back. Usually disappear by about the age of 2-3 years.
Mongolian spots
Exposure to air generally relieves this condition and the symptoms such as itching.
Usallly beginning on the cheeks, this severe atopic dermatitis is characterized by remissions and exacerbations accompanied by vesicle formation, oozing, crusting, excoriations, and itching.
One or both hips may be improperly located in the ball and socket joints; the head of the femur may be displaced, or the acetabulum may develop improperly.
Developmental Dysplasia
Describes a foot that is twisted or bent out of shape as a result of herediatary factors or an abnormal fetal position.
Also called "wry neck" this condition may be congenital or acquired by damage to the nerves or muscles.
Acute and potentially fatal childhood disease, in most cases it follows a viral illness. Related to aspirin use.
Reye's Syndrome
An acute inflammation of the meninges of the brain.
If the bones of the fetal skull do not close properly, a portion of the brain may herniate (protrude) through the opening.
A malformation in which a part of the vertebral of spinal column (usually the lower spine) is open or missing.
Spina Bifida
An opening in the child's vertebral column with no apparent symptoms. Discovered by x-ray or because of a dimple or a small tuft of hair or port-wine stain.
Spinal bifida occulta
Occures when one layer of the meninges (spinal cord covering) herniates through an opening in the vertebral column. Will be a visible sac on the back, but may show no disability.
The most serious form of spina bifida. The meninges and part of the spinal cord protrude through an opening. The child has a visible sac on the back. They are usuallly paralyzed, and may have bladder and bowel control problems.
If the circulation of spinal fluid in the CNS is disrupted, this condition causes head swelling and brain damage. Treatment for this is to insert a shunt surgically, allowing the fluid to circulate around the defect.
The child's head tends to be small, and the child is intellectually impaired to a degree determined by the brain's size. The condition is congenital.
Generalized convulsions of unknown etiology, which occur in children between the ages of 6 months and 3 years, and are more common in males. Often related to acute illnesses in which a child's temp. rapidly rises above 101.8 degrees.
Febrile Seizures
An episode during which a child becomes unconscious (usually following a period of intense crying).
Breath Holding Spells
A general failure-to-thrive condition, often caused by a general systemic disease, an absorption problem, neglect or abuse.
A defect in the bile ducts that prevents bile from excaping from the liver.
Biliary Atresia
Most common malabsorption syndrome in children, a chronic intestinal disorder, thought to be congential, where the basic problem is an intolerance of the protein gluten.
Celiac Disease
Hereditary metabolic disorder that can cause severe mental retardation because of an absence of a liver enzyme. Persons with this are most often blue eyed and blond with sensitive skin. Tests for this condition is required in most states. The only treatment is a diet low in phenylalanine containing foods - fruits, vegetable and certain cereals.
Inability to appropriately move the eyes. Usually the muscles of one eye are underactive.
(Cross Eye)
An increase in intraocular pressure with symptoms of an enlarged, edematous and hazy cornea and increased tearing, pain, and photophobia.
Congenital Glaucoma
Subnormal vision in one eye, which may fail to develop due to lack of visual stimulation because the child always uses the good eye for vision.
(lazy eye)
Drooping eyelids, usually congenital.
An acute infection of the middle ear, is the most common bacterial infection of early childhood, most often caused by nasopharyngeal reflus or eustachian tube dysfunction.
Otitis Media
Is common in childhood and usually originates in the anterior portion of the nares. Common causes include foreign objects pushed into the nose, systemic disorders, trauma, allergy, and dry mucous membranes.
(nose bleeds)
Inflammation of the tonsils, caused by a virus or bacteria.
Deformities that commonly occur together at birth. They result from failure of the upper lip and palate to close completely during the second and third gestational months.
Cleft Lip and Palate
Caused by the contents of a bottle continually coming into contact with the baby's teeth for prolonged periods, resulting in numerous dental caries.
Baby Bottle Syndrome
Abnormal opening between the right and left atria of the heart.
Atrial Septal Defect
Most frequent congenital anomaly of the circulatory system. An abnormal opening is found between the left and right ventricles.
Ventricular Septal Defect
The ductus that allows fetal circulation remains open after birth mixing oxygenated blood with unoxygenated blood.
Patent Ductus Arteriosus
The aorta and the pulmonary artery are reversed, so that each connects to the wrong side of the heart. If no shunts or septal defects exist, the child dies early because of lack of sufficient oxygenation to the body cells, only unoxygenated blood circulates systemically.
Transposition of the Great Vessel
A combination of 4 maj. defects: Pulmonary stenosis, VSD, overriding aorta, right ventricular hypertrophy.
Tetralogy of Fallot
Narrowing of the right ventricular outflow tract, includiing the valve, which decreases blood flow into the lungs.
The aorta narrows, obstructing blood flow. The condition appears similar to aortic stenosis, except that the coarctation is usually further from the heart and therfore causes circulation problems in the arms, head nad lower extremities. Blood pressure is higher in the upper extr. than the lower extrem.
Coarctation of the Aorta
Absence of an opening between the right atrium and the right ventricle, allowing no blood to flow from the right atrium to the right ventricle, which greatly decreases pulmonary blood flow.
Tricuspid Atresia
Incidence is highest in asian people: fever, red eyes, strawberry tongue, dry lips, edema of hands and feet, reddened and peeling soles and palms, rash in the perineal area, swollen lymph nodes, pain.
Kawasaki Disease
Results from an abnormally low number of RBCs, low hemoglobin content, or defects in RBC functioning.
Most frequent childhood type of anemia. Infants should be kept on breast milk or an iron-fortified commercial formula until 1 yr of age to prevent.
Iron Deficiency Anemia
Genetic disorder that prim. effects dark skinned people. Trait occurs in the person with one defective gene and one normal gene, the disease occurs when both parents carry the recessive gene. Mis-shapen RBCs that are ineffect. oxygen carriers.
Sickle Cell Disease
Sex-linked, hereditary bleeding disorder in which a deficiency in one or more of the factors necessary for blood clotting.
Normal bone marrow is replaced by large numbers of primitive lymphoid or myeloid cells. These primitive cells do not mature normally; they are incapable of functioning as effective WBCs.
Acute Lukemia
Excessive production of WBCs occure in abnormal but mature cells but do not fight infection well, they invade bone marrow and lymph nodes.
Chronic Lukemia
The most common of these are of the brain, kidney, adrenal glands, bones, and structure of the CNS.
A viral infection of the upper airways, usually follows several days of URI. Also known as "croup".
Severe respiratory distress, high fever, absence of cough, drooling of saliva and refusal to swallow due to an extremely sore throat. Acute, life-threatening inflammation.
A chronic inflammatory disorder of the airways with reactive bronchospasm affecting 15 million people, of which 5 million are children.
A viral respiratory infection where chest x-rays reveal air trapping in the lungs. Seen most often in children younger thant 2 and tends to be seasonal (winter & early spring).
Mucous-producing glands in the lungs secrete abnormal quantities of thick mucus. Most common genetic disease in Caucasians.
Cystic Fibrosis
Narrowing of the channel which food passes from the stomach to the intestine.
Pyloric Stenosis
Congenital disorder in which a small portion of the ileum ends in a blind pouch just before its junction with the colon.
Meckel's Diverticulum
A protrusion of part of an organ through an abnormal opening. In children the cause is most often congential.
Sudden increase in frequency of loose and watery stools. Most often caused by pathogens in the GI tract.
Inflammation of the lungs, common in children and adults. May initially be an infectious disease or a secondary disorder, or it may result from aspiration.
The most common acquired bleeding disorder in children. Symptoms include easy brusing, petchiae, frequent nose bleeds (epistaxis)and bleeding in the bladder or GI tract. Greatest risk is intracranial hemorrhage.
Idiopathic Thrombpcytopenic Purpura
Incontinence of feces without physical cause. Occurs in previously toile-trained children.
Inability to metabolize milk and milk products. Frequent attacks of diarrhea.
Lactose Intolerance
Telescoping of one bowel part inot another. Usually caused by hyperactive peristalsis in one bowel part and hypoactivity in another.
Paroxysmal abdominal pain, most commonly occuring in the first 3 months of life.
Colon lacks parasympathetic nerve supply and enlarges with stool and flatus.
(Hirschsprung's disease)
Involuntary passage of urine, usually at nighttime, in a child over 5 years of age.
Rare, acute condition occurring in children primarily between 6mos and 4 years, leading cause of kidney failure. Three conditions: renal failure, hemolytic anemia and thrombocytopenia.
Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome
Congenital disorder in which a small portion of the child's ileum ends at a blind pouch just before its junction with the colon
Meckel's Diverticulum
Can result from neoplasm, calculi or severe infection. Reliving the obstruction is necessary to prevent complications such as hydronephrosis.
Urinary Obstruction
Most commonly caused by perianal microorganisms and is accompanied by frequency, urgency and dysuria.
Urinary Tract Infection
Potentially dangerous infection of the upper urinary tract and kidneys. Causative bacterial infection can migrate to the kidneys from the blood stream or ascend from the bladder because the urinary tract has a mucous membrane.
Most common form of nephritis in young children. Results from immunologic reaction to infection elsewhere.
Changes in the basement membrane of teh glomeruli cause the kidney to excrete massive amounts of protein. Charaterized by gen. edema, proteinuria, and hematuria.
Nephrotic Syndrome
Malignant adeonsarcoma of the kidney. One of the most common neoplasm of childhood and usually only affects one kidney.
Wilm's Tumor
The male meatus us located on the bottom of the penis
The male meatus us located on the top of the penis
A child who has both testes and ovaries, resulting in malformed external genitalia.
An undescended testicle.
Accumulation of serous fluid within the scrotal sac.
A skin erupton that affects 85% of pop. 12-25.
An infection caused by staphylococci, streptococci, or mixed bacteria. Reddened vesicles break open and leave a sticky, honey-colored crust usually on face & hands. Highly contagious.
Fungal infection that attacks the skin between the toes. Watery blisters burn and itch, form moist weepy spots.
Tinea pedis
"athlete's foot"
Exaggerated curvature of the lumbar spine in which the pelvis tips forward, distorts the person's center of gravity.
Abnormal curvature of the thoacic spine that results in a "hunched" appearance.
"Hunch back"
Lateral curvature, resultin in an S-shaped spinal appearance.
Generalized systemic disease of the entire musculoskeletal system. Can lead to deformities, contracture, and impaired movement.
Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis
Results from a lack of blood supply to the hip joint, causing aseptic joint necrosis. Caused by injury or another disease process.
Legg-Calve-Perthes Disease
Faulty tooth positioning, resulting in improper alignment of the jaws and teeth.
Type of cancer involving the long bones.
Malignant Bone Tumors
Second most common chronic illness in children. Classic symptoms include polyuria, polydipsia, polyphagia.
Diabetes Mellitus Type I
An increasing number of overweight and sedentary children are being diagnosed with this endrocrine disorder.
Diabetes Mellitus Type 2
Characterized by a slowing progressive, bilateral retinal degeneration that often cuases blindness.
Retinitis Pigmentosa
Abnormally high intraocular pressure, resulting in eye damage and decreased vision.
Juvenile Glaucoma
Chronic gastrointestional disorder (one of 2 most common)
Inflammatory Bowel Disease
Imflammatory processes of the entire thickness of the bowel wall. Often patchy and skips segments of healthy bowel.
Crohn's Disease
Inflammation of the colon and rectum. Diarrhea, weight loss, anorexia and growth delays. Can delay appearance of secondary sex characteristics.
Chronic ulcerative colitis
Acute infection of the veriform common in school aged children and adolescents.
Pain occurring with ovulation.
Painful menstruation.
Brief attack of irresistible sleep.
Attack of muscular weakness and lack of muscle tone.
Usually occurs in the later stage of non-REM sleep. Children usually do not ercall episodes the next morning.
(sleep walking)
Common in young people and may/may not be associated with sleep walking. Often do not remember it the next morning.
(sleep talking)
Disorder characterized by extreem weight loss with no underlying physical cause. Most commonly seen in white female adolescents.
Anorexia nervosa
Characterized by loss of control during overeating followed by purging.
Bulimia nervosa
Assessed by BMI, the incidence of this condition in US is around 30%.
Urinating uncontrollably especially at night past the age of toilet training.
Uncontrollable urge to sleep, characterized by lengthy sleep periods.