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29 Cards in this Set

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What is the average number of colds per year?
3 to 10.
How long does a usual cold last?
10 to 14 days
How many days of cold symptoms per year?
140 days
Most frequent virus causing common cold
rhinovirus
Other viruses that cause common cold
Rhinoviruses, Coronaviruses, Respiratory syncytial virus, Parainfluenza viruses, Adenoviruses, Nonpolio enteroviruses, Influenza viruses, Reoviruses
Transmission of common cold
primarily through contamination of hands and objects by infectious nasal secretions; self-inoculation via the nose or conjunctivae
Incubation period
typically 1 to 5 days and up to 7 days
How long is patient contagious?
From before symptoms present until day 7-10 (or up to 3 weeks)
the major categories of medicine found in most cough and cold medicines
antihistamines, decongestants, antitussives, expectorants, analgesics
What medicines did JAMA find useful in cold medicines for preschool-age children?
None
What do antihistamines do?
Block H1 receptors on nasal vasculature and compete with histamine for receptor sites
What other properties do first-generation antihistamines have?
anticholinergic properties
Which effect is thought to help with common cold, antihistamine or anticholinergic?
anticholinergic drying action on mucous membranes
Adverse Effects of Antihistamines
Sedation, Paradoxic excitability, Dizziness, Respiratory depression, Hallucinations, Tachycardia, Heart block, Arrhythmia, Dry mouth, Blurred vision, Urinary retention
Second generation antihistamines do not have what property that first generation antihistamines have?
What medicines did JAMA find useful in cold medicines for adolescents or adults?
chlorpheniramine maleate, pseudoephedrine hydrochloride, oxymetazoline hydrochloride, ipratropium bromide, and atropine methonitrate
What generation antihistamine is terfenadine?
second-generation
What generation antihistamine is astemizole?
second-generation
What generation antihistamine is loratadine?
second-generation
What generation antihistamine is cetirizine?
second-generation
How do decongestants work?
sympathomimetic agents that decrease nasal congestion by causing vasoconstriction
Adverse effects of topical nasal decongestants
significant rebound congestion, which is especially dangerous in infants 6 months of age and younger; Continued use of topical decongestants can cause rhinitis medicamentosa, a chronic inflammatory rhinitis, nosebleeds
Adverse Effects of Systemic Decongestants
Tachycardia, Irritability, Agitation, Sleeplessness, Hypertension, Anorexia, Headache, Nausea, Vomiting, Palpitations, Dysrhythmias, Seizures, Dystonic reactions
Narcotic cough medicines contain
codeine or hydrocodone, which act on the medullary cough center in the brainstem
Most common nonnarcotic coughmedicine
dextromethorphan
Which suppress cough in children, narcotic or nonnarcotic cough medicines
neither
guaifenesin
expectorant; doesn’t work
supportive therapies
humidified air, bulb suctioning, saline nasal drops, positioning with the head elevated, and increased fluid intake
What percent of poison exposures in kids <6 are from CCM?
5.3%