Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

65 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
active perception
perception that occurs because you seek out specific information through intentional observation and questioning
a collection of perceptions about others that you maintain and use to interpret their behaviors
impression formation theory
theory that explains how you develop perceptions about people and how you maintain and use those perceptions to intpret their behaviors
primacy effect
placing heavy emphasis on the first pieces of information that you observe about another, to form an impression
recency effect
placing heavy emphasis on the most recent information that you observe about another, to form or modify an impression
implict personality theory
your unique set of beliefs and hypotheses about what people are like
halo effect
attributing a variety of positive qualities to those you dislike
horn effect
attributing a variety of negative qualities to those you dislike
a biopolar quality that you associate with people as you conceptualize them
causal attribution theory
theory of attribution that is based on determining whether a person's actions are caused by circumstance, a stimulus, or the person
standpoint theory
the theory that a person's social position, power, or cultural background, influences how the person perceives the behavior of others; where you sand makes a difference in what you see
to attribute a set of qualities to a person because of the person's membership in some category
fundamental attribution error
attributing another person's behavior to internal, controllable causes rather than to external, uncontrollable causes
self-serving bias
the tendency to perceive our own behavior as more positive than others' behavior
indirect perception checking
seeking additional information to confirm or refute interpretations you are making through passive perception such as observing and listening
direct perception checking
asking for confirmation from the observed person of an interpretation or a perception about him or her
learned system of knowledge, behavior, attitudes, beliefs, values, and norms that is shared by a group of people
a microculture: a distinct cultural group that exists (gay)
cultural element
category of things and ideas that identify the most profound aspects of cultural influence (schools, music, government)
process of communication a group's culture from generation to generation
process through which an individual acquires new approaches, beliefs, and values by coming into contact with other cultures
cultural values
what a given group of people values or appreciates
masculine culture
culture that emphasizes achievement, assertiveness, heroism, and material wealth
feminine culture
culture that emphasizes relationships, caring for the less fortunate, and overall quality of life
cultural context
information not explicity communicated through landguage but through envrionmental or nonverbal cues
high-context culture
culture that derives much information from nonverbal and envrionmental cues
low-context culture
culture that derives much more information from the words of a message and less information from nonverbal and envrionmental cues
intercultural communication
communication between or among people who have different cultural traditions
culture shock
feeling of stress and anxiety a person experiences when encountering a culture different from his or her own
belief that your cultrual traditions and assumptions are superior to those of others
a judgement or opinion of someone formed before you know all of the facts or the background of that person
information that enhances understanding of others; one of the elements necessary to becoming a competent communicator
internal state of readiness to respond to something; an element of interpersonal competence
behavior that improves the effectiveness or quality of communication with others
world view
perception shared by a culture of group of people about key beliefs and issues, such as death, God, and the meaning of life, which influences interactions with others
third culture
common ground established when people from seperate cultures create a third, 'new', more comprehensive and inclusive culture
aware of cultural differences and the connection between thoughts and deeds in one's interactions with someone from a background different from one's own
social decentering
cognitive process in which we take into account another person's thoughts, feelings, values, background, and perspectives
feeling what another is feeling
compassion towards someone
to adjust one's behavior in accord with what someone else does
communcation accomindation theory
theory that all people adapt their behavior to others to some extent
adapt predictively
to modify or change behavior in anticipation of an event
adapt reactively
to modify or change behavior after an event
selecting, attending to, creating meaning from, remembering, and respondind to verbal and nonverbal messages
psysiological process of decoding sounds
sorting through various sounds competing for your attention
focusing on a particular sound or message
assigning meaning to sounds
confirming your understanding of a message
people-oriented listener
listener who is comfortable with and skilled at listening to people's feelings and emotions
action-oriented listener
listener who prefers information that is well-organized, brief, and error-free
questioning the ideas and assumptions underlying a message; assessing whether a message is true or false
content-oriented listener
listener who is more comfortable listening to complex, detailed information than are those with other listening styles
time-orientated listener
listener who likes messages delievered succinctly
coversational narcissism
focusing on personal agendas and being self-absorbed rather than focusing on the needs and ideas of others
emotional noise
form of communication interference caused by emotional arousal
a verbal summary of the key ideas of your partner's message that helps you check the accuracy of your understanding
feeling what others are feeling, rather than just acknowledging that they are feeling a certain way
confirming response
statement that causes another person to value him or herself more
disconfirming response
statement that causes another person to value himself or herself les
critical listening
listening to evaluate and assess the quality, appropriateness, value, or importance of information
information triage
process of evaluating info to sort good info from less useful or valid info
something that has been directly observed to be true and thus has been prove to be true
conclusion based on speculation