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98 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
deception
intentionally managing verbal and/or nonverbal messages so that the target will believe or understand something in a way that the deciever knows is false
(always INTENTIONAL)
lies
(aka falsifications or fabrications) involve making up information or giving info that is not the truth
equivocaion
(aka evasion) involves making an indirect, or contradictory statement
--not really answering the question
concealment
(aka omission) people omit info they know is important
--not lying, just not telling
exaggeration
(aka overstatement) stretching the truth to make themselves look better/spice up the story
--EX: job interviews
minimizations
(aka understatements) people downplay aspects of the truth
--EX: saying you didnt do very well on an exam, when you really failed
partner-focused motives
using deception to avoid hurting the partner, to help them maintain self-esteem, to avoid worrying partner
self-focused motives
wanting to enhance or protect your self-image or trying to avoid anger, embarassment, critisism
--SELFISH reasons
relationship-focused motives
wants to eliminate relational harm by avoiding conflict or unpleasant experience
behavioral familiarity
knowing a person's normal behavior and communication style to detect if they are acting different and decieving
attachment
effectional bond or relatively or relatively enduring bond in which the partner is important as a unique individual, interchangeable with none other
attachment style
a social interaction style that is consistent with the type and quality of relationship one wishes to share with others, based on working models of self and others
secure attachment style
children tend to have responsive and warm parents, recieve moderate levels of stimulation, interaction with caregivers, children cry when parent leaves
--parents tend to find the "goodness of fit" some children need more cuddling, etc.
avoidant attachment style
children have caregivers who are insensitive or trying too hard to please- usually either over- or understimulated- their needs are not being met- they do not cry when parent leaves
anxious-ambivalent attachment style
inconsistent behavior or caregivers (responsive at times, unresponsive at others-ex: busy w/ divorce, alcohol)- children develop doubt and insecurity- they often protest when parent leaves but are angry when they come back
preoccupieds
have positive models of others but negative models of themselves- overdependent on relationships- try to gain approval of others and feel unworthy
fearful avoidants
have negative models of themselves and others- they are afraid of hurt/rejection- they want to depend on ppl but find it difficult
dismissives
have positive models of themselves and negative models of others- they are so self-sufficient that they shun others away- defense mechanism to feel good about self and avoid critisism- dont feel need for intimate relationships- often controlling
theory of self
involves self-esteem (how negatively or positively we view ourselves) and identidy(who we are and what we are like)
halo effect
the tendency to overgeneralize someones positive qualities based on attractive physical appearance
positive affect cues
convey warmth and pleasantness
immediacy cues
behaviors that signal availability and interest in interaction (gaze, closeness, forward lean, open body positions)
self-expansion theory
1) people try to expand themselves
2) people enter relationships to expand their identidy
3) a relationship's success depends on the ability of the relationship to expand the partners experiences and sense of self
dramaturgical perspective
we continually enact performances that are geared for particular audiences, w/ the purpose of advancing an image that is beneficial to us
front stage
where our performances are inacted and our behaviors are observed by an audience
back stage
where we can let our guard down and not have to think about staying in character
politeness theory
focuses on specific ways that people manage face using communication
positive face
the favorable image that people portray to others and hope to have validated by others
negative face
the perception that a person can do what he or she wants without having to worry about others' reactions
preventive facework
efforts to avoid or minimize potential face threat (ex: could be disclaimers)
corrective facework
efforts to repair the identidy already damaged...could be after something embarassing
**6 types: avoidance, humor, apologies, accounts, physical demediation, aggression
content messages
what is actually said about the topic
relational messages
cues that tell us what sort of a message a content message is because of who is saying it/how its being said
relational definitions
give us an overall sense of who we are to one another
relational culture
if 2 people develop common orientations and behaviors
relational contract
the "rules" of a relationship, even if they are not stated
relational themes
dominance-submission, emotional arousal, composure, similarity, formality, task-social orientation, intimacy
one-up messages
a dominant message that indicates a desire to take control or limit the action of others
one-down messages
messages that indicate the desire to give in in an arguement
one-across messages
messages indicating equivalence or failing to imply control
affection-hostility
how far somone can be pushed before affection turns to annoyance
depth-superficiality
the extent to which partners are willing to give each other access to personal information
inclusion-exclusion
indicate the willingness to associate with others
confirming messages
repsonses from other people that make us value ourselves more
disconfirming messages
responses from other people that make us devalue ourselves
paradoxical definitions
speakers present themselves in contradictory ways--"i am a liar" if they really are a liar, then they are telling the truth
paradoxical injunction
an impossible order- you must disobey to obey--"Stop giving in to me!" if you stop, then you are giving in to their command
double blind
there is no "correct" reponse--father tells teen to be more independent but then tries to draw them back in when they do
Palo Alto group
these researchers wanted to know why some relationships were so destructive--they felt they could find the answer through communication
complementary patterns
when the acts in a sequence are opposite, a repeated pattern of one-ups and one-downs
symmetrical patterns
a pattern consisting of acts that are similar
*competitive symmetry=all one-ups
*submissive symmetry=all one-downs
spiral
when the actions of each party intensify the actions of the other
unwanted repetitive patterns (URPs)
participants feel out of control, everytime you got together a fight would occur
empathy
the ability to spontaneously identify with another on a direct emotional level
perspective-taking
how the other percieves himself, his situation, and his emotions
civility
an activity which protects people from each other and yet allows them to enjoy each other's company
filtering theory
when and how we use the verbal and nonverbal cues of other to determine their attractiveness as a relational partner
(1) sociological or incidental cues (2) pre-interaction cues (3) interaction cues (4) cognitive cues
reciprocal liking
we are often attracted to ppl simply because they have shown an attraction to you
position
a social label that tell ppl who we are, what our duties and rights are, and where we stand in comparison to others
role rigidity
when a role takes over one's identidy..they can't get out of a certain role
looking-glass self
the self that comes to us through others..how you are from the outside/how ppl treat you
social comparison theory
when people turn to other people to see how their opinions and abilities stack up
self-perception theory
one way to learn about who we are in through self-observation
line
verbal and nonverbal behaviors we use during performance
personal front
costume, makeup, physical characteristics, gestures
back region
the private area where social actors can escape the critical eye of their audience
role distance
we find a way to let others know that the roles we play do not completely define us
role sets
others who help put on a given performance (ex: for a rock star- band members, bodyguards, groupies)
altercasting
picking people to have relationships with to make yourself look better, or to define yourself the way you want to look
mirroring
following the lead of a partner (opposite of altercasting)
mutual negotiation
both characters work together to contruct roles that are mutually satisfactory
intergroup uncertainty reduction
several different conditions that make it more likely that uncertianty will be reduced in intercultural interactions
predicted outcome theory
if you like someone, that person has a positive outcome value
dialectics theory
ppl have opposing interpersonal needs--ppl want to be close and connected to others, but they also want to be independent
uncertainty in illness theory
ppl would rather not know information then know bad information (ex: ppl would rather not know if they have an STD, so they don't get tested
expenctancy violation theory
ex: occurs when your expect your best friend to be happy for you because you won an award, and instead they are frowning
predictive expectancies
tell ppl what to expect in a given situation based on what normally occurs in that situation
prescriptive expectancies
tell ppl what to expect based on general rules of approprateness
communicator characteristics
ex: you would expect an old woman to be more polite than a teenage boy
social emotions
developed age 3/4 (jealousy, embarassment, guilt, shame) w/o these emotions everyone would be out of control
working consensus
where audience and performer can agree on definition of the situation...not set in stone
expression given
what the performer wants the audience to feel (ex eminem giving finger)
expression given-off
what performer does NOT intend for the audience to see (ex eminem looking scared in jail) *TRUER than expression given
impervious response
parent completely ignores what child said..child feels like they don't exist
tangential response
very brief "thats nice" then change the subject
impervious response
parent completely ignores what child said..child feels like they don't exist
incongruous response
WORST response...things not going together- Dad beating you and saying "I'm doing this because i love you"
impervious response
parent completely ignores what child said..child feels like they don't exist
the dismissing parent
treats children as if their feelings are not important, try tomake emotion go away by ignoring them and shaming them b/c parent cant handle it
tangential response
very brief "thats nice" then change the subject
the disapproving parent
punishes children for showing negative emotions
incongruous response
WORST response...things not going together- Dad beating you and saying "I'm doing this because i love you"
the dismissing parent
treats children as if their feelings are not important, try tomake emotion go away by ignoring them and shaming them b/c parent cant handle it
tangential response
very brief "thats nice" then change the subject
incongruous response
WORST response...things not going together- Dad beating you and saying "I'm doing this because i love you"
the disapproving parent
punishes children for showing negative emotions
the dismissing parent
treats children as if their feelings are not important, try tomake emotion go away by ignoring them and shaming them b/c parent cant handle it
the disapproving parent
punishes children for showing negative emotions