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82 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Function of Comm
Physical function- if you lack communication skills, you are more likely to die prematurely
Psychological function- we communicate to develop a sense of self
Social function- we feel the need for inclusion, control, and affection
Practical function- to convey info
Purposes of Comm
1. To Learn
2. To relate
3. To influence
4. To Play
5. To Help
Types of Comm
Intrapersonal- talking to yourself; this is the primary type of communication
Dyadic- communication between two individuals only
Small group- for example a small group or a small class
Mass communication- communication is in one direction; 25 ft barrier between speaker and audience
3 Transactional Postulates
1. Communication is: inevitable
2. Irreversible
3.content/relationship dimensions
5 Listening Levels
1. Appreciation
2. Discrimination
3. Comprehension
4. Therapeutic
5. Critical
– listening to music or sounds of nature
– using to distinguish voices or emotions
Discrimination Listening
– learning in a classroom
Comprehension Listening
-being a sound board for patients
Therapeutic Listening
-assess arguments and appeals then decide to reject or accept the notion
Critical Listening
Sequence Watson's model of listening
Sensing – receiving the sound stimuli
Attending- this step determines whether or not youll be a good or poor listener. I have SOLER written down here. Square up, open body position, lean in, eye contat and relax
Perceiving (understanding) – interpreting and evaluating using past experience
Interpreting- match senders message with receivers message
Assessing (evaluating)-separating fact from inference. “is there a problem with the inference being made”
Responding – reacting to senders message
Remembering – learned by repetition or using patterns. Can use grouping or chunking method
What is Attending
Identify the 4 main listening preferences
1. People Oriented
2. Action Oriented
3. Content Oriented
4. Time Oriented
How much time do we spend communicating?
70-80% of our time
How do we spend our communication time?
8% writing
12% reading
35% talking
45% listening
Brake down Mehrabian's study
55% Body language
38% tone of voice
7% Actual words
What are the 7 characteristics of nonverbal communication?
It is ambiguous and must be viewed in context
Is is continuous and always communicates
It is multi-channeled
It is highly believable
It is usually unconscious
It is primarily relational
It may be culture bound or cross cultural
What are the 6 emotions seen in facial expression?
S adness
H appiness
A nger
D isgust (no eyes)
F ear
S urprise
body motions or gestures that supplement or replace words
movements or gestures which accent or emphasize
expression of pronounced physical sensations
Affect Displays
cues that are meant to control the flow of communication – raise brow in disbelief
efforts to satisfy personal needs as people relate to each other.
duplicating breathing pattern to feel as if your synced up with the person your communicating with
Neurolinguistic programming
Vocalic that rises when nervous, fearful, or angry, lowers when calm or tired
Richness, fitness, strength of voice
enunciating clearly and decisively means confidence, authority and control
vocalic-fast means happy,frightened nervous or insecure. slow means unsure, bored, depressed.
rate or tempo
vocalic that determines which words are emphasized...
The function of a _________ is to say covertly what you're afraid to say directly. Must have an emphasis on a word.
Another word for touch. (pat, slap, ect)
-How we structure and use our time.
-management of informal space. lntimate Space= touch to 18"
Personal Space= 18" to 4 ft.
Social Space = 4 ft. to 12 ft.
Public Space = 12 ft. to 24 ft.
What are the eight hidden agendas?
1 Im good
2 I'm good, but you're not
3 You're good, but I'm not
4 Im helpless, I suffer
5 I'm blameless
6 I'm fragile
7 I'm tough
8 I know it all
What are good QBQ questions?
What are the bad QBQ questions?
Good: What, how, I
Bad: Why, when, who,
they, them, we, or you
Rotter's Locus of control: what is the one thing that externals lack that internals have?
they lack perception, not motivation
Sequence of steps in establishing a relationship during the initial interview.
Introduce yourself
Initiate discussion (be confident, cordial, compassionate; become genuinely interested in the patients interests, family, occupation, hobbies, and thoughts)
State the purpose and approximate length of the session
Clarify expectations and misconceptions regarding treatment
Listen carefully to the patient’s needs, desires, problems, and wants
Ask patient to help in defining tx needs
Say something complementary
What are the 3 main components of an initial interview?
To establish a relationship, obtain information, and assess the patient's behavior.
What are the requirements for empathy?
Open-mindedness, imagination, commitment
The following has to do with _______.
Begin by treating pain and/or infection. MOST IMPORTANTLY EMERGENCY FIRST
Start with the issues the pt sees as important
Focus on a problem for which the benefits outweigh the costs
Deal with something that if handled will lead to some kind of general improvement
principles of Leverage
_________is good stress that helps us respond in emergencies, prepare for deadlines and reach our full potential
What are the 3 ego states of Transactional Analysis, and how does each relate to Freud's Philosophy??
The Parent-Ego
The Child-Id
The Adult-SuperEgo (necessary for survival)
What are the 3 kinds of transactions described by Transactional Analysis?
Complimentary transactions – messages sent or received by the same ego state. adult to adult or child to child or parent to parent. Usually results in smooth and indefinite communications.
Crossed transactions – when you address an ego state that the other person isn’t in. Some crossed transactions cause conflict and others solve conflict. Parent to Child
Ulterior transactions –there are more than 2 ego states involved at the same time. If communication is Adult-Adult there might be ulterior and sometimes nonverbal messages between and Adult and Child
What are the 5 steps to a patient saying "yes"?
1. Understanding-patients usually fully understand about 15% of what the doctor says. 90% of patients value having as much information as possible from the doctor. 10% don’t care what Dr says.
2. Need- based on the information provided by you, patients decide for themselves about the severity of their dental conditions. If the perceive the need as serious and immediate they tend to respond.
3. Value- Patients will select the action with the greatest benefits and the smallest disadvantages. Patients want to know if it is worth their time, inconvenience and money.
4. Identity- Patients must visualize themselves with the positive outcomes. Patients must value and identify with the outcome
5. Action- Believing isn’t doing. Patients need to be guided toward action.
What are the 4 deadly sins of case presentation?
1 Blaming
2 Moral Superiority
3 Sales Pressure
4 Threats
Give examples of low context cultures
US, Isreal, Europe, Australia, Canada
Give examples of high context cultures
Asian, African, Arabic countries.....emphasis on relationship, place, time, situation, etc.
What are the 4 styles of interpersonal behavior?
1 Aggressive
2 Passive
3 Assertive
4 Passive Aggressive
What are the 6 elements in writing a script for change?
1. Look - at your rights, what you want, what you need and your goal.
2. Arrange - a time and place to discuss your problem that is convenient for you and the other person
3. Define - the problem as specifically as possible
4. Describe - your feelings using “I messages”
5. Express - your request
6. Reinforce - by stating the positive and if necessary the negative consequences of the other person’s response
-calmly repeat your point of view without getting sidetracked
Broken Record
- admit an error but separate the mistake from you as a person.
Assertive Agreement
- prompt criticism to gather additional information for your argument.
Assertive Inquiry
- change focus from topic to what is happening interactively.
Content-to-Process Shift
- appear to give ground without actually doing so
- put off discussion until the other parties’ emotions subside
- respond to provocative criticism with one word
Circuit Breaker
- respond to hostile criticism positively
Assertive Irony
- wait to respond to a challenging statement until you are calm
Assertive Delay
- you are responded to with a joke. Use content-to-process or broken record.
Laughing it off- (attack & derail)
- you are blamed for the problem. Use Clouding or simply disagree
Accusing Gambit (attack & derail)
– you are attacked personally. Use Assertive Irony or Defusing/postpone until less emotion is involved.
The Beat Up Gambit (attack & derail)
- your assertion is met with “not now,” or “I’m tiered.” Use Broken Record, or set a time
Delaying Gambit (attack & derail)
- assertions are blocked with “why” questions. Use Content-to-Process shift or Broken record – Why is not the point.
Why Gambit (attack & derail)
- assertion is met with tears. Use Assertive Agreement.
Self Pity Gambit (attack & derail)
- someone debates the legitimacy of what you feel. Assert your right to feel. Use Content-to-Process Shift
Quibbling (attack & derail)
- like “I’ll quit.” Use Circuit Breaker or Assertive Inquiry.
Threats (attack & derail)
- assert what you observed or experienced. Use Clouding. (EX use a log of hours worked/absent)
Denial (attack & derail)
What are the 5 conflict styles?
1. Competition-Win/Lose strategy-use when other approaches have failed, unpopular issues or changes need to be implemented, or when a quick decision is necessary. Dominate mindset, unbending, focus on success at all costs.
2. Accommodation- Lose/Win strategy-Approach with more yielding mindset. You can afford to lose. Use when protecting a relationship, the issue is more important to the other party, or involving others in the decision is important
3. Avoidance- Lose/Lose strategy- Not talk about issues in question, no big deal, beyond that scope of ability. When tempers flare and both parties need to cool. We use this when we think the problem is trivial or we don’t know how to handle the conflict in question.
4. Compromise- GIVE/TAKE use when, you want to find common ground and power is not an issue, to reach a solution in a difficult situation that must have a conclusion, or when the personal relationship needs to be maintained.
5. Collaboration- Win/Win strategy- use when both parties are willing to creatively solve a problem, when trust levels are high and all hidden agendas are out in the open, or to get at previously unresolved issues that may have hindered progress.
What is the AEIOU model for dealing with conflict?
A Assume that the other person means well. Try to find positive elements in the other person’s position
E Express your feelings and expectations regarding positive intentions on his or her part.
I Identify your desired goal. Using positive language and non-defensive behavior.
O Outcome should be defined as expected.
U Understanding should occur on a mutual level
What are the 5 kinds of speeches? In order of difficulty.
from least to most difficult
1. Inform - by time or space
2. Stimulate
3. Persuade – simply help you change way of thinking
4. Activate/Motivate – propel someone to take action –is to a whole new level
5. Entertain – very difficult and most time consuming to put together
4 kinds of script used in public speaking...
1. Word for Word script – prepare 250 words/page. Double spaced, triple space between paragraphs. Number the pages, a podium is needed, write in conversational language, have familiarity with the text so that don’t have to read it.
a. Advantages
i. Assured of saying exactly what is planned
ii. Little worry about running short or long
iii. Can be dull if: speaker is not familiar with text or the text is dull
2. Traditional outline – 4x6 note cards, large type
a. Advantages
i. Allows for more spontaneity
ii. Reduces size and volume of notes

b. Disadvantages
i. Easy to overtalk some points and undertalk others
ii. Greater opportunity to slip and lose your place
iii. Hard to follow if cards are cluttered (number them)
3. Key-Word outline
a. Advantages
i. Glance at keyword, recall thought, look up and address audience
ii. Freedom and spontaneity
iii. One doesn’t need a lectern-hides in palm of your hand
b. Disadvantages
i. Little help to a failing memory
ii. Invites rambling and sloppy wording
4. Pictographs
a. Advantages
i. A picture is worth a thousand words
b. Disadvantages
i. Some ideas resist depiction
ii. Requires great recall and great imagination
5. No script – memorize script word for word. It takes 17 hours to memorize a 10 minute speech. (10-12 min to learn 1 minute)??
– poetic device. The repetition of the same sound at the start of two or more words in the same phrase to create melody
- The rule of three-Descriptive phrases, lists and adjectives are more memorable when they travel in threes.
- omission of words to achieve speed and establish cadence.
- the use of sentence fragments to quicken the pace. – half century to develop---, quarter century to develop
- successive sentences are begun with the same word or word group. (I came, I saw, I conquered)
- a balanced phrase opposes two elements, the first usually spoken with the pitch going up, the second with the pitch going down (After all is said and done, more is said than done)
rhetorical technique for speaking which includes a. To issue a challenge
b. To introduce an idea for discussion
c. To make an accusation
Rhetorical Question
-An exaggeration used to emphasize a point (remove the log from own eye to remove the speck from another's)
-A thematic phrase or word repeated throughout a passage or an entire presentation.
4 reasons why people ask questions
1. They were not listening
2. They want their own chance to pontificate
3. They are eager to show up the speaker’s inadequacies
4. They sincerely want more information (done the least often)
5 guidelines for handling questions?
1. Anticipate what will be asked
2. Accept questions from the audience-not statements
3. Remember-the only “dumb” question is the one they don’t ask
4. Talk to the whole audience. – repeat the question
5. Admit what you don’t know