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37 Cards in this Set

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persuasion
the process of attempting to change or reinforce a listener's attitudes, beliefs, values, or behaviour
motivating with cognitive dissonance
the sense of disorganization or imbalance that prompts a person to change when new infor conflicts with previously organized thought patterns
motivating with needs
the theory that humans have five levels of need arranged in such a manner that lower level needs must be met before people can be concerned about higher level needs
motivating with fear appeal
scaring your audience into compliance
motivating with positive appeals
describing good things that will happen if they follow your advice
attitude
a learned predisposition to respond faborably or unfaborably to something; a like or dislike
belief
a sense of what is true or false
value
an enduring conception of right or wrong, good or bad
propositions of fact
a claim as to whether something is true or false , or whether it did or did not happen
propositions of value
a claim that calls for the listener to judge the worth or importance of something
propositions of policy
a claim advocating a specific action or change of policy, procedure or behavior
ehtos(credibility)
the credibility or tethical character of a speaker
competence
the factor in a speaker's credibility that refers to his or her being perceived as informed, skilled, or knowledgeable.
trustworthiness
the factor in a speaker's credibility that refers to his or her being perceived as believable and honest
dynamism/charisma
the factor in a speaker's credibility that refers to his or her being perceived as energetic/characteristic of a talented, charming, attractive speaker
logos(proof
0
logical arguments
evidence
material used to support a point or premise
reasoning
the process of drawing a conclusion from evidence
inductive reasoning
using specific instances or examples to reach a probable general conclusion
deductive reasoning
moving from a general statement or principle to reach a certaing specific conclusion
causal reasoning
relating two or more events in such a way as to conclude that one or more of the events cause the others
causal fallacy
making a faulty cause and effect connection between two thing or events
bandwagong fallacy
suggesting that because everyone else believes something or does something , it must be valid, accurate, or effective
either/or fallacy
oversimplifying an issue as offering only two choices
hasty generalization
reaching a conclusion withiout adequeate suporting evidence
personal attack
attacking irrelevant personal characteristics of someone connected with an idea, rather than addressing the idea itself
red herring
using irrelevant facts or information to distract someone from the issue under discussion
appeal to mispaced authority
using someone wihout the appropriate credentials or exspertise to endorse an idea or product
non sequitur
Latin for "it does not follow"; an idea or conclusion that does not logically follow the previous idea or conclusion
pathos
emotional appeals
problem and solution organization
organization by discussing first a problem and the its various solutions
cause and effect organization
organization by discussing a situation and its causes or a situation and its effects
refutation
organization according to ognections your listeners may have to your ideas and arguments
motivated sequence
a five step plan for organizing a persuasive message:attention, need, satisfaction, visualization, and action
persuading with a receptive audience
identify with aud., emhasize common interests, provide clear obj., use emotional appeals
persuading the neutral audience
gain and maintain attention
refer to beliefs and concerns to the listener
who how the topic affects people your listeners care about
be realistic
persuading unreceptive audiences
don't tell listeners that you are going to try to persuade them
present strongest argument 1st
acknowledge opposing points of view
don't expect a major shift in attitudes on behavior