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49 Cards in this Set

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Where did Communication field start?
400 BC when groups of Sicilian overthrew govt and needed good communication skills to place legal claim against former govt for seized land etc.
To speak persuasively and effectively
What is definition of rhetoric?
What are 5 canons of rhetoric?
a) analyze the audience

b) discover ideas to supp claim

c) organize your thoughts/mssg

d) speak w clarity & vigor

e) memorize context and deliver speach effectivly
Acc to Aristotle what are 3 ways to persuade listener?
1 Ethos-proof based on speakers credibility (trustworthiness, experise)

2 Pathos-appeal to listeners emotions

3 Logos-logic and reasoning
What is
Started in 1900's sponsors journals/conferences on practice, journalism, scholarship, and teaching
What is Nat
Stated in 1914, Advances in research, teaching, and service related to the communication field
What is Int
In 1900’s as field broadened, goal of the ICA was to conduct research
What are qualitative and scientific research goals of ICS?
1 credibility factor - study factors affecting ones credibility

2 rational model affect - effects of following the rational model on ones decision making

3 Group response - to diff leadership styles

4 self disclosure - impact on romantic relationships

5 impact of mass media

6effect of various kinds of persuasion
What Effect of Civil Rights, Youth Culture and women’s movements have on comm field?
helped expand communication discipline to include interpersonal (nonverbal, family, intimate). These social mvmts affect individuals and society. Empower people whose voices have been muted. The social movements challenged broadly held cultural practices and ideas.
re: empowerment
inter personal
social chgs
What are 3 approaches to research in comm field?


Critical Research
What is qualitative research?
Provides non numerical knowledge for things that can not be easily quantified. Good for aspects like i.e. meaning of experience i.e. fx of rituals in society
What are 3 qualitative research methods?
Textural analysis - interpretation of symbolic activity
i.e. interpret meaning of AIDS quilt, self disclosure in chat rooms

Ethnography - research by immerse self in cultural activity to gain insight from those who are native

Hx Research - To gain knowledge from significant past events, people and activities. The data would include documents, records and biographies.
What are 3 quantitative resaearch methods?
1 statistics-to measure human behavior in terms of quantity and frequency

2 survey-Questionnaire or interview to measure hoe people think or feel

3 Experiment-study use method to control context of (result0 to measure how one variable affects other variables
What is critical research?
ID and challenge communication practices which marginalize or harm individual groups to advance social awareness and progress toward more practical consequences.
What is best approach for research?
Triangulation uses all 3 research methods; each is valuable and contribute to overall knowledge
Descr Intrapersonal Comm?
Self talk or comm. With ourselves. Another term for thinking process which occurs inside of us. To plan our lives
Descr Interpersonal Comm?
Dialog btwn 2 people, study how comm affects and sustains relationships. how people in groups (dyads) communicate. Conflict resolution and constructive vs. unconstructive
Descr performance studies in Comm?
Ways we perform our personal, professional, and social identities
ie how we perform and create our gender identities by enacting masc vs feminine
ie Power and Comm
Descr Group and Team Comm?
Dynamics are uniformity. Equality vs. dominance

I.e. decision making committees
Descr Public Comm?
Public speaking
I.e. politicians
Descr Oraganizational Commun?
Good comm skills en hance job performance. Understanding organizational culture and personal relationships and study of code of thoughts that organizational members share
Descr mass Commun?
Media representation and influence on cultural values.
ie sometimes reinforce cx stereotype as in africian american stereotypes
Net email, fax affect on commun
Descr Technology Comm?
1 Symbolism - arbitrary, ambiguous, and abstract representation of phenomena

2 Meaning - How we use symbols to create meaning in our lives

3 - Ethics - focus on moral principles and code of conduct
3 unifying themes in comm?
Descr Intercx commun?

Give ex
how diff cultures communicate with eachother and differences affect communication.
I.e. individualist societies (USA) vs. Collective Societies (Japanese) communication may differ
make a statement with no evidence to support it. I.e. “woman can’t do math”
18 Logical Fallacies in comm, descr "unsupported assertion"?
Descr "Logical distortion "fallacy of Comm?
Evidence that is taken out of context
Describe Use of "isolated examples" as fallacy of communication?

Problem w this?
Use isolated examples to prove a general point.

Problem with this is not enough data to support
poor sampling of population of interest. This causes:
A - Lack of significant difference in results
Descr "misuse of statistics" as logical fallacy of comm?
Descr "red herring" fallacy of commun?
Introduce a smokescreen that is irrelevant to what you are talking about, This is a metaphorical way of referring to a tactic which consists of the introduction of one or more propositions, often controversial or extreme, which lie well outside of the domain of the existing argument.
i.e. bush talking about war on terrorism to justify war
Descr Strawman fallacy of Comm?
bring up an argument you know you can win but it isn’t pertinent to the current debate or issue, when a person simply ignores a person's actual position and substitutes a distorted, exaggerated or misrepresented version of that position.
Descr Begging the question fallacy of comm?
This tactic of reasoning avoids the provision of support for a claim, either by circular reasoning or by substituting another claim or evidence that supports some claim not related to the original one
Descr Hasty generalization fallacy of comm?
Similar to unsupported assertion. Generalized conclusions without enough evidence
ie Jim Bakker was an insincere Christian. Therefore all Christians are insincere."
Descr "stereotping" as fallacy of commun?
draw conclusions based on perceived common characteristics. However all members cannot fit
the stereotype
Descr false dillemma as fallacy of commun?
pretend there are only 2 options to solve a problem but ignoring other options
Figurative analogy when you compare 2 things that aren’t related. I.e. what is your boss like → he is a slave driver
Descr false analogy fallacy of commun?
Latin for ‘after this therefore b/c of this” Fallacy of false cause and coming to a conclusion based on sequence of events rather than taking into account other factors

ie he reporter who feels the Conservatives lost the election of 1993 because the leader made too many jokes about her posterior.
Descr post hoc ergo propter hoc fallacy of commun?
Conclusion that one thing will inevitably lead to something else. Suggestion that one action will lead
to a chain of events cumulating in a undesired effect later
Descr the "slippery slope" fallacy of commun?
Descr "begging the question" fallacy of commun?
to pass over or ignore a question, assuming it to be established or settled. Common in circular arguments

I.e. the bible says god exists → bible must be right since it is the revealed word of god → so god exists
Descr the "halo effect" fallacy of commun?
When your personal biases (positive) therefore it keeps you from being objective. Opposite is devil effect
Exaggerations to make an argument more powerful

i.e. You don’t let your child go to a dance → child will never have friends
Descr "hyperbole" fallacy of commun?
means “does not follow” when you draw a conclusion but the conclusion doesn’t really follow
I.e. “If you don’t wear your coat today you will die from a cold
Descr the "non sequitor" fallacy of commun?
Descr "ignoring the issue" fallacy of commun?
i.e. When debating an issue and someone brings up points and the other person brings up something and not address the points brought up prior
"confusing correlation w cause" research fallacy?

give ex
Just b/c 2 things are related doesn’t mean one causes the later.

I.e. Eating breakfast causes kids to get good grades or i.e. wearing uniforms in school causes better behaved students
Named after greek figure named “Oracle at Delphi” who was a wise woman whom leaders consulted on important matters. However her answers were so vague that is was wise no to surmise an answer
Descr "Delphi Fallacy" of research fallacy?
Descr "jean Dixon" research fallacy?
Person who made one correct prediction yet ignored all of her other incorrect predictions and assume she is right all the time
Descr the "patchwork quilt" research fallacy?

Give exmple
patterns based on unrelated events

ie must be aliens b/c how could we have pyramids if aliens didn't intervene to help build such grand buildings without modern
What is the difference btwn "symbol response" and "symbol reaction?"
This is the difference btwn animal and human communication.

Ie Animal- When animal gets stimuli (pavlov dog thn salivates) then signal response (automatically).

Ie Human - When human get symbol (yellow traffic light thn can either slow or speed up) then symbol reaction (can choose reaction, not automatic).
Give example of Coco and Michael and "symbol reaction".
Scientist think gorilla can do symbol reaction.
I.e. coco knocked sink off wall and blamed it on other trainer. Coco took IQ (Stanford-Binet) and got 85% and 95%.
I.e. Coco also created words based on meaning
I.e. coco and Micheal (boyfriend) signed to each other. Chimps watched wild cat eat bird in window. He signed to trainer “cat bad, bird run run.”