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75 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
authors, producers, organizations
programs, texts, images, sounds, ads
mass media channel
newspapers, books, magazines, radio, tv, internet
editors, producers, media managers
letters to editor, phone calls, email, web site postings, audience members in talk shows
selective exposure
audiences seek messages and produce meanings that correspond to their own cultural beliefs and values
high culture
ballet, symphony, art museums, classical literature
low culture
soap operas, rock music, readio shock jocks, video games
media convergence
new technology used to access new and old forms of mass communication
modern period
from the full-blown arrival of the Industrial Revolution
ET, Access Hollywood
ex-celebs selling products
media effects research
focused on attempting to understand, explain, and predict the effects of mass media on individuals and society
4 trends in media effects research
propaganda analysis, public opinion research, social psychology studies, marketing research
typically call-in, online, or person-in-the-street polls that news media use to address a "question of the day"
marketing research
surveys on consumer buying habits
private/proprietary research
generally conducted for a business, corporation, or political campaign
public research
academic/government settings
applied research
information uncovered addresses a real-life problem or need
theoretical research
tries to clarify, explain, predict effects of mass media
media effects models
hypodermic-needle, minimal-effects, uses and gratifications
hypodermic-needle model
suggests that the media shoot their potent effects directly into unsuspecting victims
minimal-effects model
er selectively expose ourselves to media messages that are most familiar to us and we retain messages that confirm values/attitudes we already hold
uses and gratifications model
viewers are often actively engaged in media; middle ground
scientific method relies on:
objectivity, reliability, validity
eliminating bias and judgments on the part of researchers
getting same outcomes from a study during repeated testing
demonstrating that a study actually measures what it claims to
methods of studying media research
experiments, surveys, content analysis
content analysis
method of coding and measuring media content
media effects theories
social learning, agenda-setting, cultivation effect, spiral of silence
social learning theory
attention, retention, motor reproduction, motivation
when the mass media pay attention to particular events or issues, they set the agenda for the major topics of discussion for individuals and society
cultivation effect
suggests that heavy viewing of tv leads individuals to perceive reality in ways consistent with tv portrayals
sprial of silence
proposes that those who find that their views on a controversial issue are in the minority will keep their views to themselves for fear of social isolation
cultural studies
focused on how people make meaning, apprehend reality, and order experience through use of cultural symbols in print and visual media
approaches to cultural effects research
textual analysis, audience studies, political economy
textual analysis
close reading and interpretation of the meanings of culture, including the study of books, movies, and tv programs
audience studies
focuses on how people use and interpret cultural content
political economy
most concerned about the increasing conglomeration of ownership in the media
seditious libel
defaming a public official's character in print
partisan press
pushed the plan of the particular political group that subsidized paper
human-interest stories
news accounts that focus on the daily trials and triumphs of the human condition
wire services
commercial organizations that relayed news stories and information around the country and the world using telegraph lines and, later, radio waves and digital transmissions
objective journalism
distinguishes factual reports from opinion columns; reporters strive to maintain a neutral attitude toward the issue or event they cover
inverted-pyramid style
writing representation of objective reporting
interpretive journalism
tries to explain key issues or events and place them in a broader historical/social context
advocacy journalism
reporter actively promotes a particular cause or viewpoint
precision journalism
attempted to push news more in the direction of science
literary journalism
adapted fictional storytelling techniques to nonfictional material and in-depth reporting
consensus-oriented journalism
promotes social and economic harmony in communities
conflict-oriented journalism
front-page news are events, issues, or experiences that deviate from social norms
underground press
questions mainstream political policies and conventional values
everything from front-page news reports to horoscopes and advice columns
general assignment reporters
handle all sorts of stories
specialty reporters
assigned to particular beats/topics
bureau reporters
file reports from other columnists/critics
feature syndicates
commercial outlets that contract with newspapers to provide work form nation's best political writers, editorial cartoonists, comic-strip artists, and self-help columnists
joint operating agreement (JOA)
2 competing papers keep separate news divisions while merging business/production for a number of years
newspaper chains
companies that own several papers throughout the country
street papers
cover topics such as the political and economic factors that contribute to homelessness
models for speech/journalism
authoritarian, communist, libertarian, social responsibility
authoritarian model
general ublic needs guidance from an elite, educated ruling class
communist/state model
press control relies in government
libertarian model
encourages vigorous government criticism and supports highest degree of freedom for individual press/news operations
social responsibility model
press functions as a fourth estate (unofficial branch of gov. that keeps others in check)
prior restraint
courts/gov. can't block any publication or speech before it actually occurs
legally protects the rights of authors and producers to their published and unpublished writing, music, lyrics, etc
constitututes spoken languages that defames a person's character
defamation of character in written/broadcast expression
qualified privilege
journalists are allowed to report judicial or legislative proceedings even though public statements being reported might be libelous
invasion of privacy
addresses a person's right to be left alone, without his or her name, image, or daily activities becoming public property
gag orders
issued to prohibit the press from releasing preliminary information that might prejudice jury selection
shield laws
protect reporters from having to reveal sources for controversial information used in news stories