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112 Cards in this Set

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February 17, 2009
-1st time in history when old televisions won't work
-switch from analog to digital tv
Complications of switch from analog to digital
-how tv makes money (expensive for local stations, networks backing out of promises)
SDTV and HDTV
spectrum is free
EDTV
enhanced definition television
2 signals
broadcasting to multicasting (increase audience)
3 Issues of New Media
Analog vs. Digital
picture quality
broadcasting vs. multicasting
Analog
medium carrying info. resembles the info. itself (like light pattern on film)
old media
analogy=similarity
Digital
01000001=digital A
pattern of on/off signals that computers translate into visuals, sounds, etc.
arbitrary code that only one device can understand
Eroding differences in Media
-books, movies, radio, photographs etc. are all different because technology is different and they were invented at different times (analog)
-NOW: words, sounds, pictures etc. are all the same to a computer (digital)
Convergence
-analog media to be a digital medium
-technological convergence drives economic convergence
Time Warner owns...
because...
publishing, movies, television, internet
they are on the way to being one thing
Media taking on characteristics of computers
interactivity (watching a dvd non-linerally etc.)
for every benefit there is almost always a danger
Digital Divide
unequal access to technology is usually also associated with another kind of socioeconomic variable (class etc.)
will this eventually solve itself because of the nature of statistics?
technology is constantly obsolete...
Knowledge Gap Hypothesis
1. at a point early in an issue's development, privileged and non privileged are asked about the issue and their knowledge is about the same
2. as the media talks more about the subject, the underprivileged group's knowledge increases slightly but the privileged increases IMMENSELY
THEREFORE the knowledge gap increases
Tunnel Vision Society
-tv know rewards accidental viewing and exposes viewers to things not intended for them
-will tv of the future allow us to avoid exposure to things we don't want to see, such as people not in our group?
blurring of advertising and content
integration means that advertising can't be avoided
because things like TiVo are giving people too much power
developing privacy issues
old media is anonymous
new technology threatens privacy and leads to more effective manipulation
opt-out policy
one must physically make the decision to not have information collected, but if you don't they will collect data
new face of media ownership
concern that the media is in too few hands, because in the past, it was always different companies for each medium, now it's the same companies
conglomerates
TimeWarner, Disney, Sony, Gannett, ClearChannel, GE< NewsCorp
Red Herrings...why?
Viacom split from CBS...likely artificial
TimeWarner sold of book publishing branch... needed fast money
deregulation
corporations have been allowed to get this large
lightening of government policies
1. Fin-Syn eliminated
2. Telecommunications act of 1996
Rule of Seven
1 company could own 7 radio stations on each spectrum (14 total) and then 7 tv stations (21 total)
1980's: 12 stations each
Clinton
1 company could control as many stations as they wanted, as long as they reached less than 35% of the country
most exploited by ClearChannel (24 radio stations to 1200)
corporate synergy
ownership strategy
companies think of themselves as being in the branded license business
companies want to be able to control all aspects, so they own all companies involved
branded licenses have...
versions
ie. (with movies) 1st run, 2nd run, dvd, merchandising,
selling- film itself, images, soundtrack, video games, comic books, advertising etc.
digitization
technologically, everything will be one medium
globalization
selling products worldwide
providing advertising for global companies
ex. MTV has foreign versions in 140 countries
media's power over democracy
influence media legislation and other decisions in Washington
ability to influence public opinion makes them powerful
homogenization
mainstream media content tends to be similar
efficiency
if a company finds a philosophy that works, they will use it (homogenization)
homogenization of radio formats
75% of radio stations comprised of 15 industry defined formats, many of which overlap and are very similar
emphasis on media promotion
Fox movie advertised on Fox network ex.
promotions invading content (Disney/ABC News ex.)
self promotion
development of horror genre
started as extreme B films (Z films)
tried to cultivate teen audience with coming of tv
badly and quickly made
Psycho
A picture, well directed, critically acclaimed
took premises from slasher movies
mainstreaming of slasher movies to...
make money
1970's
reflexive slasher movies
commenting on the genre
ex. Scream, Scary Movie
gender portrayals in slasher movies
men most likely to die, but female deaths are lingered on
men have more violent acts against them
punitive attitude towards female sexuality
Sapolsky et. al.
violent acts have increased in slasher films
no connection between sexuality and violence
identification with the villain
films don't encourage viewers to hate the villain
selective use of point-of-view shots
selling action through the killer's eyes encourages audience to identify with him
ex. Halloween
psychological sympathy created by the villain's childhood trauma
feeling sorry for the villain
ex. Silent Night, Deadly Night
witty villain
encourages laughing WITH the villain
usually telling jokes while killing
villains are usually the only characters with personality
ex. Chuckie
monster's name
usually shows everyday quality or normalcy of the villain so viewers identify with him
exs. Chuckie, Freddy, Jason
"Free-Range Rude"
the victims are made out to be deserving, so viewers won't hate the killer
ex. Hannibal
desensitization
when continually surrounded by extreme stimuli, people get used to it
media might have to increase in intensity because...
if the media we're exposed to is emotionally intense, we adjust, and if we want our experience to be as intense as the first time, subsequent experiences must be more intense
desensitization to non-mediated material
ie. news
because of desensitization as a result of slasher films???
study by Linz, Donnerstein and Penrod
desensitization to sexualized violence in college males
5 nights in a row- watched slasher films or not
results of study by Linz, Donnerstein and Penrod (focus on slasher film group)
-felt less anxious and depressed
-films seemed less violent
-films were more enjoyable
-films were more humorous
results of study by Linz, Donnerstein and Penrod (focus on rape trial)
those exposed to slashers rated:
-the victim less injured
-the victim less attractive
-the victim more responsible
-the vitime less worthy overall
-themselves less sympathetic
uses and gratifications research
assumes active audiences
different reasons for watching media
reasons often correlated with other variable (personality etc.) or needs
study by Johnston
-solicited slasher film fans
-surveys asked why they liked them
-correlated reasons with personality variables
-generated different fan types
Johnston's slasher film fan types
thrill watcher
independent watcher
gore watcher
problem watcher
thrill watcher
like to be scared
high sensation seeking, high empathy
independent watcher
asserting independence/individualism
high sensation seeking, low empathy
gore watcher
like special effects and spectacle
? sensation seeking, low empathy
problem watcher
like to escape and forget life
low empathy, high drug use
study by Mundorf, Weaver and Zillman
-subjects viewed films with opposite sex confederates
-manipulated: actions and emotions of confederate
-measured: enjoyment of the film
results of study by Mundorf, Weaver and Zillman (focus on male subjects)
high enjoyment: distressed partner
low enjoyment: mastering partner
results of study by Mundorf, Weaver and Zillman (focus on female subjects)
high enjoyment: mastering partner
low enjoyment: distressed partner
conclusions of study by Mundorf, Weaver and Zillman
slasher films reinforce gender roles
cultivation analysis
developed as a way to analyze effects of tv violence
assumptions of cultivation analysis
-tv world is different than the real world
-heavy tv viewing starts to cultivate our beliefs about the world in a way that conforms to tv version
2 stage methodology
content analysis of tv to determine what its world looks like
surveys of people to determine their viewing levels, attitudes, beliefs and how much these reflect the tv world
2 stage methodology hypothesis
heavy viewers will choose tv answer, while light viewers will choose real answer
2 stage methodology and violence
heavy viewers will believe that the world will be more violent than it is, therefore, they are more scared
"Mean World Index"
tv violence cultivates in heavy viewers the belief that "outsiders" are mean and exploitative; such viewers are more likely to support authoritarian/ harsh legal policies
criticisms of cultivation
-problem with the direction of causality
-essentializes tv: is tv all the same? can the theory be refined?
DVR's challenge 4 assumptions of TV
1. tv scheduling to control audience flow
2. commercials are the price audiences pay for tv
3. need for 3rd party ratings company
4. copyright protection
promise of TiVo for tv and advertisers (3)
-value to odd timeslots
-surveillance possibilities
-data-driven CRM possibilites
Carlson (issue)
how may DVR's-which offer viewing flexibility/control and data collection possibilities- alter the television and advertising landscape?
Segrin and Nabi (issue)
is watching tv correlated with overly romanticized views of marriage? specifically romance genres
Segrin and Nabi (results)
overall tv viewing was not but viewing romantic tv WAS correlated with an overly romantic view of marriage
Segrin and Nabi (problems)
where does causality start? maybe overly romantic people watch romantic tv...
internet
vast network of telephone and cable lines and satellite systems designed to link and carry computer information worldwide
ARPAnet
Advanced Research Projects Agency, the original internet created by the Defense Department, enabled military and academic researchers to communicate on a distributed network system
servers
millions of computers linked by networks
operate as entry points for internet traffic and are interconnected by special high speed data lines
newsgroups
loosely organized computer conferences that consist of bulletin boards and individual messages which are circulated to subscribers 24 hours a day
digital communication
an image, text or sound is converted into electronic signals represented as a series of binary numbers which are then reassembled as a precise reproduction of the original image, text or sound
microprocessors
minature circuits that can process and store electronic signals
fiber-optic cable
features thin glass bundles of fiber capable of transmitting thousands of messages that have been digitally converted into shooting pulses of light
internet service providers
AOL, Comcast, Earthlink
bring internet into people's homes and offices
World Wide Web
initially a free and open system for organizing and standardizing communication on the internet
browsers
software environments that help users navigate the web
directories and search engines
help users find the right web site among the millions available
email and instant messaging services
links to friends and "buddies" on the internet
HTML
HyperText Markup Language
the written code that creates web pages and links
a language that all computers can read
portals
entry points to the web (such as serach engines)
Internet2 (I2)
more advanced, second generation of the internet
open-source software
free sharing of the program source code and ideas to upgrade programs often used by hackers
e-commerce
selling and purchasing products and services on the internet
cookies
information profile about a user that are often automatically accepted by the web browser and stored on the user's own hard drive
spyware
secretly bundled with free downloaded software and permits a 3rd party to retrieve personal information on computer users and send popup ads to a user's computer screen
spam
internet equivalent of unwanted junk mail and backroom gossip
pseudo-polls
unreliable, call-in, online or person-in-the-street polls that the news media use to address a "question of the day"
hypodermic needle model
media shoot their potent effects directly into unsuspecting victims
minimal effects model
tightly controlled experiments and surveys
researchers argue that people engage in selective exposure and selective retention
selective exposure
selctively exposing ourselves to media messages that are most familiar to us
selective retention
retaining messages that confirm values and attitudes we already hold
hypotheses
tenative general statements that predict a relationship between a dependent and independent variable
scientific method
a blueprint long used by scientists and scholars to study phenomena in systematic stages
experiments
isolate some aspect of content, suggest a hypothesis, and manipulate variables to discover a particular medium's impact
random assignment
every subject has an equal chance of being placed in either group
survey research
method of collecting and measuring data taken from a group of respondents
longitudinal studies
long range, make it possible for scientists to compare new studies to those conducted years earlier
content analysis
studying the messages of print and visual media
social learning theory
attention, retention, motor reproduction and motivation
agenda setting
when the mass media pay attention to particular events or issues they determine the major topics of discussion for individuals in society
spiral of silence
theory that links the mass media, social psychology and the formation of public opinion
those who find their views are in the minority will keep thier ideas to themselves
cultural studies
challenged mainstream media effects models
focus on how people make meaning, aprehend reality and order experience through their use of cultural symbols in print and visual media
textual analysis
the close reading and interpretation of culture