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### 58 Cards in this Set

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 This creates a spectrum from a time domain waveform showing what all the individual components are? Fourier Transform What do you see when you have a microphone recording on a screen in front of you? time domain waveform If you subject time domain waveform to a fourier transform, what do you get? frequency domain display that shows you a spectrum The frequency domain spectrum represents a _____________ in time that has ___________ on its X axis and _____________ on its Y axis. snapshot frequency amplitude The Fourier Transform is a way from going from one ______ of a signal to another ______ -from the ________ domain to the _____________ domain. view view time frequency The great benefit of of a frequency domain display is to show us what those ___________ __________ are, and also the _____________ ____________ of each. individual components relative proportions While it has a bit of imperfection, the human voice is nearly _________. It has a ___________ and then _____________ which are __________ of that ___________. periodic fundamental harmonics multiples fundamental The upper harmonics in the human voice get progressively ________ as you go up in ___________. weaker frequency On a time vs. frequency domain, if you make your voice softer or louder, you'll see some changes in the __________ _________ of the ____________. If you raise and lower your pitch, you'll see the harmonics ___________ _________ from one another or coming _________ ____________ as the pitch comes back down again. relative strength harmonics spreading apart back together Noise is when all _____________ are present with various different ________ ___________ to each other with approximately equal ___________. frequencies phase relationships amplitude What encloses an area that would have been completely filled in by the vertical lines that represent individual sine waves? spectral envelope What does the spectral envelope show us? the relative strength of the different frequency components in noise The human voice source is not truly __________. If you look at a spectrum of it, you'll find there are __________ with some _________ around the ______ of the _______. periodic peaks spread base peaks The spread around the base of the peaks represents what? imperfections or noise that is present in every human voice What does FFT stand for? fast fourier transform What does the FFT show us? the range of harmonics that are present in each sound and peak for those harmonics - however, it doesn't show formants very well What does LPC stand for? linear predictive coding What does the LPC show us? spectral envelope but individual harmonics - quite revealing of what the vocal tract filter is doing What are the resonant energy peaks in the vocal tract function? formants The formants you see in the vocal tract will be present because of the way you have ________ the vocal tract. They don't really care of the sound is being ___________ or __________. shaped phonated whispered The LPC spectrum will show you what the vocal tract is doing and what its ___________ ___________ are ___________ to one another. It doesn't reveal any _________ about the __________ _______. resonance frequencies relative features sound source What shows ingredients of a sound at a single point in time but can't show the progression of that signal over time? spectrum What can show us individual spectral slices that arranged side by side over time? spectrogram Why is a spectrogram useful? Because as we speak, we produce a whole series of sounds that differ from one another in their spectral characteristics What 3 different parameters does a spectrogram (or 3-D spectrogram) display? time frequency intensity On a spectrogram, darkness indicates what? intensity A speech spectrogram shows us how the _________ in each range of ____________ is _________ or _________ over time. strength frequencies changing evolving What does a wide band spectrographic analysis give you? good time or temporal detail What does a narrow band spectrogram give you? extremely good frequency resolution (it tends to blur things together over time) What prevents us from having good time and frequency detail on a 3D spectrogram display? the laws of physics What do we refer to as a wide band spectrogram? 300 Hz bandwidth What are the vertical striations on a wide band analysis? glottal pulses Because you have this level of detail and you can see events as brief as individual glottal pulses, you can make very good ________ ____________ from this type of wide band display. time measures What do we consider a narrow band display? 45 Hz bandwidth What are the horizontal, almost parallel lines that we see on a narrow band analysis? harmonics This type of display shows individual vertical glottal pulses (vertical striations) and good time resolution. wide band This type of display shows horizontal lines that represent harmonics of the voice and separates them out - good frequency resolution. narrow band Speech therapists work on _________ the way the client uses his ______________ to improve sound _________. altering structures output How do women's voices compare to men's in fundamental frequency? they are an octave higher - men's vocal cords are larger What tend to carry the greatest amount of energy in speech? vowels and diphthongs In theory, vowels are _______ ____________. During the time you are sustaining the vowel production, one point in time looks like ______ _____ acoustically. time invariant any other What determines the particular vowel that we will be producing at that moment? the shape of the vocal tract What makes one vowel different from another? the frequencies of the formants are different for each one Usually you can ___________ the vowel from the _________ _____ formants, even with _________ speech. identify first two synthetic The higher formants tend to make the vowels sound more? natural (in synthetic speech) What dictates what frequencies will be favored or echoed? size of a resonator When you reach a formant peak in the vocal track, energy in that vicinity (frequency range) will be ___________ or __________ so that it comes out of the mouth at a much higher ____________ than the frequencies that occur in a tough in the vocal transfer function. The ones that occur in a trough tend to be ____________ out or ___________. ________ __________ is more efficient at the ___________. amplified boosted amplitude filtered weakened energy transfer formants For whom is the vowel quadrilateral the largest? children - because their formant frequencies are higher Lowering the jaw and tongue does what? increases the frequency of the first formant What happens as you move the tongue forward? the second formant's frequency increases What does lip rounding do? lowers all formants, regardless of vowel type Why does lip rounding lower formants? because you are lengthening the vocal tract What is constructive interference? where the waves will add up and give you more strength What is destructive intereference? Where the waves may cancel one another out. higher vowels = ? lower F1 lower vowels = ? higher F1 back vowels = ? lower F2 front vowels = ? higher F2