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58 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
This creates a spectrum from a time domain waveform showing what all the individual components are?
Fourier Transform
What do you see when you have a microphone recording on a screen in front of you?
time domain waveform
If you subject time domain waveform to a fourier transform, what do you get?
frequency domain display that shows you a spectrum
The frequency domain spectrum represents a _____________ in time that has ___________ on its X axis and _____________ on its Y axis.
The Fourier Transform is a way from going from one ______ of a signal to another ______ -from the ________ domain to the _____________ domain.
The great benefit of of a frequency domain display is to show us what those ___________ __________ are, and also the _____________ ____________ of each.
individual components
relative proportions
While it has a bit of imperfection, the human voice is nearly _________. It has a ___________ and then _____________ which are __________ of that ___________.
The upper harmonics in the human voice get progressively ________ as you go up in ___________.
On a time vs. frequency domain, if you make your voice softer or louder, you'll see some changes in the __________ _________ of the ____________. If you raise and lower your pitch, you'll see the harmonics ___________ _________ from one another or coming _________ ____________ as the pitch comes back down again.
relative strength
spreading apart
back together
Noise is when all _____________ are present with various different ________ ___________ to each other with approximately equal ___________.
phase relationships
What encloses an area that would have been completely filled in by the vertical lines that represent individual sine waves?
spectral envelope
What does the spectral envelope show us?
the relative strength of the different frequency components in noise
The human voice source is not truly __________. If you look at a spectrum of it, you'll find there are __________ with some _________ around the ______ of the _______.
The spread around the base of the peaks represents what?
imperfections or noise that is present in every human voice
What does FFT stand for?
fast fourier transform
What does the FFT show us?
the range of harmonics that are present in each sound and peak for those harmonics - however, it doesn't show formants very well
What does LPC stand for?
linear predictive coding
What does the LPC show us?
spectral envelope but individual harmonics - quite revealing of what the vocal tract filter is doing
What are the resonant energy peaks in the vocal tract function?
The formants you see in the vocal tract will be present because of the way you have ________ the vocal tract. They don't really care of the sound is being ___________ or __________.
The LPC spectrum will show you what the vocal tract is doing and what its ___________ ___________ are ___________ to one another. It doesn't reveal any _________ about the __________ _______.
resonance frequencies
sound source
What shows ingredients of a sound at a single point in time but can't show the progression of that signal over time?
What can show us individual spectral slices that arranged side by side over time?
Why is a spectrogram useful?
Because as we speak, we produce a whole series of sounds that differ from one another in their spectral characteristics
What 3 different parameters does a spectrogram (or 3-D spectrogram) display?
On a spectrogram, darkness indicates what?
A speech spectrogram shows us how the _________ in each range of ____________ is _________ or _________ over time.
What does a wide band spectrographic analysis give you?
good time or temporal detail
What does a narrow band spectrogram give you?
extremely good frequency resolution (it tends to blur things together over time)
What prevents us from having good time and frequency detail on a 3D spectrogram display?
the laws of physics
What do we refer to as a wide band spectrogram?
300 Hz bandwidth
What are the vertical striations on a wide band analysis?
glottal pulses
Because you have this level of detail and you can see events as brief as individual glottal pulses, you can make very good ________ ____________ from this type of wide band display.
time measures
What do we consider a narrow band display?
45 Hz bandwidth
What are the horizontal, almost parallel lines that we see on a narrow band analysis?
This type of display shows individual vertical glottal pulses (vertical striations) and good time resolution.
wide band
This type of display shows horizontal lines that represent harmonics of the voice and separates them out - good frequency resolution.
narrow band
Speech therapists work on _________ the way the client uses his ______________ to improve sound _________.
How do women's voices compare to men's in fundamental frequency?
they are an octave higher - men's vocal cords are larger
What tend to carry the greatest amount of energy in speech?
vowels and diphthongs
In theory, vowels are _______ ____________. During the time you are sustaining the vowel production, one point in time looks like ______ _____ acoustically.
time invariant
any other
What determines the particular vowel that we will be producing at that moment?
the shape of the vocal tract
What makes one vowel different from another?
the frequencies of the formants are different for each one
Usually you can ___________ the vowel from the _________ _____ formants, even with _________ speech.
first two
The higher formants tend to make the vowels sound more?
natural (in synthetic speech)
What dictates what frequencies will be favored or echoed?
size of a resonator
When you reach a formant peak in the vocal track, energy in that vicinity (frequency range) will be ___________ or __________ so that it comes out of the mouth at a much higher ____________ than the frequencies that occur in a tough in the vocal transfer function. The ones that occur in a trough tend to be ____________ out or ___________. ________ __________ is more efficient at the ___________.
energy transfer
For whom is the vowel quadrilateral the largest?
children - because their formant frequencies are higher
Lowering the jaw and tongue does what?
increases the frequency of the first formant
What happens as you move the tongue forward?
the second formant's frequency increases
What does lip rounding do?
lowers all formants, regardless of vowel type
Why does lip rounding lower formants?
because you are lengthening the vocal tract
What is constructive interference?
where the waves will add up and give you more strength
What is destructive intereference?
Where the waves may cancel one another out.
higher vowels = ?
lower F1
lower vowels = ?
higher F1
back vowels = ?
lower F2
front vowels = ?
higher F2