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53 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
IPA - International Phonetic Alphabet
~ With out the IPA, it would be impossible to capture, on paper, accurate representation of impaired speech patterns for individuals seeking help.
5 Branches of Phonology
~ Historical,
~ Physiological,
~ Acoustic,
~ Perceptual,
~ Clinical
~ (and Experimental, in book, but not in lecture.)
5 Branches of Phonology - Historical Phonology
How speech sounds change over time.
5 Branches of Phonology - Psychological Phonology
AKA - Articulatory Phonetics,
~ How speech sounds are made physically with the body.
5 Branches of Phonology - Acoustic Phonology
Acoustic properties of speech sounds. (Frequency, Amplitude, Speech in the Air.)
5 Branches of Phonology - Perceptual Phonology
~ How the human ear perceives, speech sounds.
~ Discrimination of sounds, amount of sound energy, Loudness, Pitch, Length and Quality.
5 Branches of Phonology - Clinical Phonology
How phonetics apply to speech sound problems.
General American English
Speech patterns for most of the Western United States. Used when a region does not have regional pronunciation.
Grapheme
Printed Alphabet letters
Morpheme
Smallest unit of language capable of carrying meaning.
Bound Morpheme
Morphemes, when alone hold no meaning.
Prefixes, and Suffixes.
Free Morpheme
Morphemes that can stand a lone and carry meaning.
Phoneme
A speech sound capable of differentiating morphemes. One specific speech sound difference. /paet/
Allophone
Varian productions of a Phoneme
Minimal Contrast/Pair
Two Words that differ by on speech sound /paet/, /baet/
Allophonic/Narrow Transcription
Use of [ ] brackets
Use of diacritics to indicate variations in sounds.
Exact sound transcriptions
Phonemic/Broad Transcription
Use of / / Slashes
Does not transcribe allophone variations
No indication on where sounds originate.
Diacritic Marks
Indicate allphonic variations
Brackets
[ ]
Used with Narrow transcription
Slashes
/ /
Used with Broad transcription
3 Systems of the Speech Mechanism
Respiratory System,
Laryngeal System,
Articulation/Supra-laryngeal System
Respiratory System
Lung Area -
Lungs and the Trachea
Provide airflow Modifies through larynx and articulation systems for speech
Laryngeal System
Larynx -
Primarily cartilages
Thyroid, Arytenoid, Cricoid.
Articulation System
Head (everything above the Larynx) -
Articulators, Lips, teeth, alveolar ridge, Palates, tongue
Lungs
Contains air flow, for respiration, and speech purposes.
Diaphragm
Muscles that separate the abdominal cavity from the thoracic cavity.
As the Diaphragm lowers, the rib cage expands it creates more room for the inflating lungs.
Trachea
Wind pipe -
connects to the lungs with the larynx.
Larnyx
Cartilage and muscular structures that house that vocal folds.
Responsible for Phonation
Thyroid Cartilage
Anterior Cartilage of the Larynx, where the Vocal folds attach.
The Notch on the T.C. is the Adams Apple.
Cricoid Cartilage
Posterior Cartilage of the larynx shaped like a signet ring.
Arytenoid Cartilage
Paired cartilages of the larynx that attaches to the superior portion of the Cricoid.
Vocal Folds
Elastic Folds of tissue. Primarily composed of muscle.
Glottis
The Opening between the Vocal folds
Oral Cavity
Mouth
Nasal Cavity
Nose
Soft Palate
Muscles located posterior to the hard palate.
AKA the Velum
Lips
Articulator - Labial sounds
Labial: Made with the lips
Bi-labial: Made with both lips
Teeth
~ Dental Sounds
~ Articulator
Alveolar Ridge
~ Alveolar sounds
~ Bony part, right behind the teeth (top portion).
~ More sounds are made here, then anywhere else
Hard Palate
~ Palatal Sounds
~ Separates oral and nasal cavities
Tongue
~ Lingual Sounds
~ Important for Consonant production
Jaw
Helps the tongue move into position
Low jaw /a/
High jaw /g/
Pharyngeal Wall
Back of the throat.
Velopharyngeal Port
The back of the throat, which constricts around the velum to predict air from flowing to the Nasal Cavity.
Vocal Fold Vibrations
~ Quickness of vibrations determines pitch
~
Fundamental Frequency
~ The basic rate of vibration of the vocal folds
~ Men @ 125 times a second,
~ Women @ 215 times a second
Adducted
~ Closed
~ Movement of vocal folds toward the mid line position.
Abducted
~ Open
~ Movement of vocal folds away from the mid line position.
Importance of the Velopharyngeal Port Closure
~ Allows the separation of air flow for sound production.
~ Where the Velum and Pharyngeal meet to close off air flow toward the nasal cavity.
Monophthongs
~ A vowel phoneme Consisting of one distinct articulatory element
Diphthongs
~ One phoneme consisting of two vowel elements.
Retroflexed
~ Tongue tip is raised and curled back toward the alveolar ridge to create on sound, as the back of the tongue creates a second.
Rhotacized
~ The production of a phoneme with an /r/. The 'er' sound.